12.1 Consumers can limit resource populations

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● Recap
● 11.6 Individuals of different species can collaborate in mutualistic interactions
● Dispersive mutualism:
Birds and mistletoe
● BIOL 4120: Principles of Ecology
Lecture 12: Dynamics of Consumer-Resource Interactions
● Topics (Chapter 15)
● 12.1 Consumers can limit resource populations
● 12.3 Mathematical model for predation
● Solving the equations
● 12.5 Lokta-Volterra model can be stabilized by predator satiation
● Functional and numerical responses
● Functional Responses Relate Prey Consumed to Prey Density
● 12.5 Factors that reduce oscillations in predator-prey models
● 12.6 Consumer-resource system can have more than one stable state
● The End
● Recap

نوع زبان: انگلیسی حجم: 7.03 مگا بایت
نوع فایل: اسلاید پاورپوینت تعداد اسلایدها: 50 صفحه
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گروه موضوعی: زمان استخراج مطلب: 2019/06/05 10:26:13

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., population, plant, cycle, predator, prey, consumer, resource, mite, species, interaction, time,

توجه: این مطلب در تاریخ 2019/06/05 10:26:13 به صورت خودکار از فضای وب آشکار توسط موتور جستجوی پاورپوینت جمع آوری شده است و در صورت اعلام عدم رضایت تهیه کننده ی آن، طبق قوانین سایت از روی وب گاه حذف خواهد شد. این مطلب از وب سایت زیر استخراج شده است و مسئولیت انتشار آن با منبع اصلی است.

http://www.tnstate.edu/faculty/dhui/biol4120/ppt/BIOL4120_Lect12.ppt

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عبارات پرتکرار و مهم در این اسلاید عبارتند از: ., population, plant, cycle, predator, prey, consumer, resource, mite, species, interaction, time,

مشاهده محتوای متنیِ این اسلاید ppt

مشاهده محتوای متنیِ این اسلاید ppt

recap species interaction consumer resource interactions parasites and host herbivore and plant competition mutualism ۱۱.۶ individuals of different species can collaborate in mutualistic interactions mutualism interaction benefits both species involved. honeybee and plants plants provide honeybee with nectar bees carry pollen between plants can be symbiosis lichens algae and fungi or non symbiosis seed dispersal birds and plants could involve more species humans extract honeycombs for honey birds eat the wax left behind bacteria in the guts to digest the wax three categories trophic defensive and dispersal mutualisms trophic mutualisms feeding relationship bacteria in rumens of cows geospiza fortis and g. fuliginosa medium and small ground finch defensive mutualism food and shelter defend partners against their consumers cleaning fish or shrimp clean parasites form the skins some mutualists need their partners to survive and grow. ants can’t survive without plants and plants can’t survive without ants. adaptation improved the efficiency of their association ants work day and night to protect plants. acacias retain leaves all year. both unusually a wonderful story of acacias plants and ants in central america see textbook ۲۹۸ . dispersive mutualism birds and mistletoe mistletoe is the common name for obligate hemi parasitic plants in several families in the order santalales. these plants attach to and penetrate the branches of a tree or shrub by a structure called the haustorium through which they absorb water and nutrients from the host plant. the name mistletoe was originally applied to viscum album european mistletoe of the family santalaceae in the order santalales the only species native in great britain and much of europe. biol ۴۱۲ principles of ecology lecture ۱۲ dynamics of consumer resource interactions dafeng hui office harned hall ۳۲ phone ۹۶۳ ۵۷۷۷ email dhui@tnstate.edu population size change not only regulated by resources by also by the interaction of species. population cycles of predators and their prey data from records of purchase by hudson’s bay company canada macluich ۱۹۳۷ basic question in population biology what factors influence the size and stability of populations topics chapter ۱۵ ۱۵.۱ consumers can limit resource populations ۱۵.۲ many predator and prey populations increase and decrease in regular cycles ۱۵.۳ mathematic models for predator prey interaction ۱۵.۴ pathogen host dynamics can be described by the s i r model ۱۵.۵ lotka volterra model can be stabilized by predator satiation ۱۵.۶ factors can reduce oscillation of predator prey models ۱۵.۶ consumer resource system can have more than one stable state ۱۲.۱ consumers can limit resource populations populations of consumer are self regulated because of their effects on their resources and consumers contribute to the regulation of resource population. questions how large is the rule of consumers could the consumers keep the resource population under the carrying capacity do consumer resource interactions cause populations to fluctuate independently of variation in the environment predation on cyclamen mites cyclamen mite is a pest of strawberry in ca typhlodromus mite is a predatory mite greenhouse experiment one with predatory mite and one without by applying parathion cyclamen sicklamen a plant species typhodromus why parathion only reduce predatory mite not cyclamen mite or reduced both reduced both. in field conditions when typhodromus mites are eliminated cyclamen mites are also reached damaging levels biological control herbivores and plant populations herbivores can control plant populations klamath weed or st. john’s wort became a widely spread pest poison to cattle and sheep following its introduction. when chrysolina beetle was introduced the klamath weed was finally under control. we mentioned prickly pear catus in australia catus moth. klamath weed from european toxic to livestock accidentally established in ca in early ۱۹ s by ۱۹۴۴ it was widely spread millions of hactaries in ca beetle from australia. it’s abundance reduced by more than ۹۹ . effects of herbivores on plant production can be measured using exclosure experiments left protected. not a good picture shrubs are influenced can’t see the plant grow better native grassland consume ۳ ۶ of aboveground vegetation by insects and grazing mammals exclosure experiment voles kind of mouse voles eat annual grasses. perannual and herbs not in the voles’ diet were not directly affected by the exclosures. ۱۲.۲ many predator and prey populations increase and decrease in regular cycles cycles of predator and prey populations are common the periods of cycles vary from species to species large herbivores snowshoe hare muskrat ruffed grouse ۹ ۱ year small ones vole mice lemming ۴ years cycle predators feed on large prey have long cycle red foxes lynx marten mink predators feed on small prey have short cycle arctic fox hawks snowy owls cycles oscillations are caused by predator and prey interaction predator – prey . herbivore plant under controls for predator prey we usually observe cycles of these two population increase with time then decrease then increase again for both predators and prey time delays and population cycles time delays in birth and death caused oscillation in population time delays also occur in predation period of population cycle should be ۴ ~ ۵ times the time delay hare populations fluctuated less on an island with few predators than on the surrounding mainland. time delays in birth to maturity ۱ to ۲ years less predators on island. predation pressure changed the magnitude intensity of population cycles not the period. predators move back and forth from mainland and island may maintain the synchrony of the two populations. physical conditions may change the period of cycles ۴ year cycle in northern scandinavia but annually in southern sweden. winter delay in north maintain a long cycle. in the south owls hunt voles whole year create a short cycle. climate warming may cause the shift from ۴ yr to annual shown in this figure or multiple prey . owl and vole snow in north prevent owl hunt in winter time delay north voles support specific predators south supports different predators alternative prey selection dampened the cycle warmer winter temperature damped all years predation alternative prey development of host immunity influences host populations cases of measles reported in london before vaccine had been developed peaked about every two years periodicity in …

کلمات کلیدی پرکاربرد در این اسلاید پاورپوینت: ., population, plant, cycle, predator, prey, consumer, resource, mite, species, interaction, time,

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http://www.tnstate.edu/faculty/dhui/biol4120/ppt/BIOL4120_Lect12.ppt

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