Chapter 2 Operating System Structures

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● Chapter 2
Operating System Structures
● Outline
● Operating System Services
● OS Services
● [User – Operating System] Interface – CLI
● Bourne Shell Command Interpreter
● The MacOS X GUI
● System Calls
● Example of System Calls
● System Call Implementation and Calling
● Linux system calls
● Linux system calls and
Intel x86 architecture
● System Call Parameter Passing
● Parameter Passing via Table
● Accessing and executing System Calls
● Example of Standard API
● Why use APIs rather than system calls directly?
● Standard C Library Example
● Types of System Calls
● Examples of Windows and Unix System Calls
● System Programs
● Structuring OS (Kernel)
● OS Structure
● Simple Structure
● Layered Approach
● Unix
● Traditional UNIX System Structure
● Layered Operating System
● Microkernel System Structure
● Modules
● Solaris Modular Approach
● Virtual Machines
● Examples
● Operating System Debugging
● Operating System Generation
● System Boot
● References
● Additional Study Material

نوع زبان: انگلیسی حجم: 2.13 مگا بایت
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system, call, program, …, user, interface, os, kernel, file, parameter, operating, number,

توجه: این مطلب در تاریخ 2019/06/05 08:49:57 به صورت خودکار از فضای وب آشکار توسط موتور جستجوی پاورپوینت جمع آوری شده است و در صورت اعلام عدم رضایت تهیه کننده ی آن، طبق قوانین سایت از روی وب گاه حذف خواهد شد. این مطلب از وب سایت زیر استخراج شده است و مسئولیت انتشار آن با منبع اصلی است.

http://www.salimarfaoui.com/Com310Lectures/Com310Ch02.ppt

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عبارات پرتکرار و مهم در این اسلاید عبارتند از: system, call, program, …, user, interface, os, kernel, file, parameter, operating, number,

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chapter ۲ operating system structures salim arfaoui www.salimarfaoui.com outline outline operating system services user operating system interface system calls system programs operating system structure objectives to describe the services an operating system provides to users processes and other systems to discuss the various ways of structuring an operating system operating system services for user user interface program execution i o operations file system manipulation communication process communication error detection and handling for system efficiency ad sharing resource allocation accounting protection and security os services user operating system interface cli cli command line interface cli or command interpreter shell in kernel or as a system program many flavors fetches a command from user and executes it command may be built in command may be another program gui user friendly desktop interface icons represent files programs actions etc. many operating systems now include both cli and gui interfaces linux command shells available cli kde as gui bourne shell command interpreter the macos x gui system calls programming interface to the services provided by the os i.e. interface provided to applications typically written in a high level language c or c are called by a running program to get services even a simple program may make a lot of calls per second. application system calls system calls os functions each has a name number set of parameters application a process a running program …. kernel os other kernel functions other kernel functions can be called by system calls system call interface example of system calls system call sequence to copy the contents of one file to another file system call implementation and calling typically a number associated with each system call number used as an index to a table system call table table keeps addresses of system calls routines system call runs and returns caller does not know system call implementation just knows interface linux system calls around ۳ ۴ system calls number generic name of system call name of function in kernel ۱ exit sys exit ۲ fork sys fork ۳ read sys read ۴ write sys write ۵ open sys open ۶ close sys close … ۳۹ mkdir sys mkdir … linux system calls and intel x۸۶ architecture eax ebx ecx cpu move system call number move some parameters execute trap instruction int x۸ cpu registers calling a system call system call parameter passing often more information is required than the identity of the desired system call exact type and amount of information vary according to os and call three general methods used to pass parameters to the os ۱ simplest pass the parameters in registers in some cases may be more parameters than registers ۲ parameters stored in a block or table in memory and address of block passed as a parameter in a register ۳ parameters placed or pushed onto the stack by the program and popped off the stack by the operating system last two methods do not limit the number or length of parameters being passed parameter passing via table accessing and executing system calls system calls typically not accessed directly by programs mostly accessed by programs via a high level application program interface api i.e. a library rather than direct system call use three most common apis are win۳۲ api for windows posix api for posix based systems including virtually all versions of unix linux and mac os x java api for the java virtual machine jvm api std lib program sys calls rest of kernel os example of standard api consider the readfile function in the win۳۲ api — a function for reading from a file a description of the parameters passed to readfile handle file—the file to be read lpvoid buffer—a buffer where the data will be read into and written from dword bytestoread—the number of bytes to be read into the buffer lpdword bytesread—the number of bytes read during the last read lpoverlapped ovl—indicates if overlapped i o is being used why use apis rather than system calls directly api system calls your program open … … sys open … … fopen … … standard c library code kernel code your program code … fd open … …. user level code kernel level code standard c library example c program invoking printf library call which calls write system call types of system calls process control file management device management information maintenance communications protection examples of windows and unix system calls system programs system programs provide a convenient environment for program development and execution. they can be divided into file manipulation create delete copy rename print list … status information date time amount of available memory disk space who is logged on … file modification text editors grep … programming language support compiler debuggers … program loading and execution loaders linkers communications ftp browsers ssh … other system utilities applications may come with os cd games math solvers plotting tools database systems spreadsheets word processors … system programs most users’ view of the operation system is defined by system programs not the actual system calls system programs provide a convenient environment for program development and execution some of them are simply user interfaces to system calls others are considerably more complex create file simple system program that can just call create system call or something similar compiler complex system program system programs system programs other user applications system calls kernel from os’s view system user programs are all applications users people structuring os kernel os structure simple structure msdos layered approach microkernel approach modules approach simple structure ms dos – written to provide the most functionality in the least space not divided into modules although ms dos has some structure its interfaces and levels of functionality are not well separated layered approach the operating system is divided into a number of layers levels each built on top of lower layers. the bottom layer layer is the hardware the highest layer n is the user interface. with modularity layers are selected such that each uses functions operations and services of only lower level layers unix unix – limited by hardware functionality the original unix operating system had limited structuring. the unix os consists of two separable parts systems programs the kernel consists of everything below the system call interface and above the physical hardware provides the file system cpu scheduling memory management and other operating system functions a large number of functions for one level traditional unix system structure layered operating system microkernel system structure moves as much from the kernel into user space communication takes place between user modules using message passing benefits easier to extend a microkernel easier to port the operating system to new architectures more reliable less code is running …

کلمات کلیدی پرکاربرد در این اسلاید پاورپوینت: system, call, program, …, user, interface, os, kernel, file, parameter, operating, number,

این فایل پاورپوینت شامل 42 اسلاید و به زبان انگلیسی و حجم آن 2.13 مگا بایت است. نوع قالب فایل ppt بوده که با این لینک قابل دانلود است. این مطلب برگرفته از سایت زیر است و مسئولیت انتشار آن با منبع اصلی می باشد که در تاریخ 2019/06/05 08:49:57 استخراج شده است.

http://www.salimarfaoui.com/Com310Lectures/Com310Ch02.ppt

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