How can knowledge be represented ?

فهرست عناوین اصلی در این پاورپوینت

فهرست عناوین اصلی در این پاورپوینت

● Overview
● ΑΙ and KR
● What is KR&R?
● Knowledge
● Representation
● & Reasoning
● How can knowledge be represented ?
● Symbolic Methods of Knowledge Representation
● What does Knowledge Representation include ?
● Types of Knowledge
● The Language of Propositional Logic
● Syntax of a KR language
● Semantics of a KR language
● Knowledge Representation Languages
● Desired Features of KR languages
● Expressiveness vs. Tractability
● Logic for KR
● Advantages of Logic for KR
● Disadvantages of Logic for KR
● What is this course about ?
● Course Flow
● Propositional Satisfiability (SAT)
● Actions, Situations, and Events
● Knowledge Representation with Constraints
● Temporal KR&R
● Logic-based Reasoners
● Constraint-based Reasoners

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عبارات مهم استفاده شده در این مطلب

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knowledge, ., reasoning, representation, logic, proposition, represent, know, john, kr, c, intelligence,

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عبارات پرتکرار و مهم در این اسلاید عبارتند از: knowledge, ., reasoning, representation, logic, proposition, represent, know, john, kr, c, intelligence,

مشاهده محتوای متنیِ این اسلاید ppt

مشاهده محتوای متنیِ این اسلاید ppt

knowledge representation reasoning kostas stergiou department of information communication systems engineering university of the aegean email overview lecture time thursday ۱۸ ۲۱ and sometimes on fridays… office times every day lecture slides http icsd konsterg teaching kr kr.html assignments ۱ major ۳ ۴ smaller implementation of a solver theoretical study presentation and discussion of research papers overview aims development of skills in knowledge representation reasoning understanding of various different ways to represent and reason with knowledge practical applications of knowledge representation reasoning motives for research overview prerequisites artificial intelligence search algorithms logic propositional first order logic algorithms data structures algorithmic complexity programming c  c  java overview bibliography general stuff on ai artificial intelligence a modern approach russell norvig http ~russell aima.html http artificial intelligence a new synthesis nilsson essentials of artificial intelligence ginsberg knowledge representation knowledge representation and reasoning ronald j. brachman hector j. levesque constraint programming constraint processing rina dechter lots of papers… more after specific lectures αι and kr a description of artificial intelligence is the study and development of systems that demonstrate intelligent behavior based on the above a description of knowledge representation reasoning is the study of ways to represent and reason with information in order to achieve intelligent behavior kr r is the part of ai that is concerned with thinking and how thinking contributes to intelligent behavior what is kr r there are many ways to approach the topic of intelligence and intelligent behavior neuroscience psychology evolution philosophy kr suggests an approach to understanding intelligent behavior that is radically different instead of studying humans very carefully biology nervous systems psychology sociology etc. it argues that what we need to study is what humans know. it is taken as a given that what allows humans to behave intelligently is that they know a lot of things about a lot of things and are able to apply this knowledge as appropriate to adapt to their environment and achieve their goals. kr r focuses on the knowledge not on the knower. we ask what any agent—human animal electronic mechanical—would need to know to behave intelligently and what sorts of computational mechanisms might allow its knowledge to be manipulated. knowledge what is knowledge this is a question that has been discussed by philosophers since the ancient times and it is still not totally clarified. will not attempt to define it formally… observe that when we say something like john knows that … we fill in the blank with a simple john knows that mary will come to the party john knows that spain won the euro among other things knowledge is a relation between a knower and a proposition knower john proposition the idea expressed by a simple declarative sentence like mary will come to the party. what can we say about propositions for kr r what matters about propositions is that they are abstract entities that can be true or false right or wrong. when we say john knows that p we can just as well say john knows that it is true that p. representation roughly representation is a relationship between two domains where the first is meant to stand for or take the place of the second. usually the first domain the representor is more concrete immediate or accessible in some way than the second. for example a drawing of a hamburger on a sign might stand for a less immediately visible fast food restaurant an elected member of parliament might stand for his or her constituency. the type of representor that we will be most concerned with here is the formal symbol that is a character or group of characters taken from some predetermined alphabet. the digit ۷ for example stands for the number ۷ as does the group of letters vii knowledge representation then is the field of study concerned with using formal symbols to represent a collection of propositions believed by some agent. reasoning what is reasoning in general it is the formal manipulation of the symbols representing a collection of believed propositions to produce representations of new ones. here that we use the fact that symbols are more accessible than the propositions they represent they must be concrete enough that we can manipulate them move them around take them apart copy them string them together in such a way as to construct representations of new propositions. we might start with the sentences john loves mary and mary is coming to the party and after a certain amount of manipulation produce the sentence someone john loves is coming to the party we would call this form of reasoning logical inference because the final sentence represents a logical conclusion of the propositions represented by the initial ones reasoning is a form of calculation not unlike arithmetic but over symbols standing for propositions rather than numbers how can knowledge be represented symbolic methods declarative languages logic imperative languages c c java etc. hybrid languages prolog rules frames semantic networks … non – symbolic methods neural networks genetic algorithms symbolic methods of knowledge representation first order logic c c java prolog frames constraints xml rdf ontologies natural language non monotonic logic semantic networks rules hybrid systems fuzzy logic propositional logic scripts description logics bayes networks what does knowledge representation include exception tolerant and inconsistency tolerant reasoning default logics conditional logics paraconsistent logics argumentation temporal reasoning spatial reasoning causal reasoning abduction explanations extrapolation model based diagnosis reasoning about actions situation calculus action languages dynamic logic reasoning planning and decision making under uncertainty probabilistic and possibilistic approaches belief functions and imprecise probabilities representations of vagueness many valued and fuzzy logics concept formation similarity based reasoning information change belief revision update information fusion ontologies ontology methodology and ontologies themselves qualitative …

کلمات کلیدی پرکاربرد در این اسلاید پاورپوینت: knowledge, ., reasoning, representation, logic, proposition, represent, know, john, kr, c, intelligence,

این فایل پاورپوینت شامل 35 اسلاید و به زبان انگلیسی و حجم آن 0.24 مگا بایت است. نوع قالب فایل ppt بوده که با این لینک قابل دانلود است. این مطلب برگرفته از سایت زیر است و مسئولیت انتشار آن با منبع اصلی می باشد که در تاریخ 2019/06/05 08:50:38 استخراج شده است.

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