Alcoholic fermentation

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● Three common fates of pyruvate
● Alcoholic fermentation
● Why do athletes breath heavily
before an event?
● CH3CHOHCOOH
● Oxygen debt: waste not, want not!
● Huffing & puffing after exercise helps repay the “oxygen debt”
● All 3 fates of pyruvate from glycolysis provide for the regeneration of NAD+ from NADH.

نوع زبان: انگلیسی حجم: 1.09 مگا بایت
نوع فایل: اسلاید پاورپوینت تعداد اسلایدها: 20 صفحه
سطح مطلب: نامشخص پسوند فایل: ppt
گروه موضوعی: زمان استخراج مطلب: 2019/06/07 12:19:44

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عبارات مهم استفاده شده در این مطلب

عبارات مهم استفاده شده در این مطلب

., glycolysis, fermentation, f۲, nad, enzyme, alcohol, acid, acetyl, yeast, regulation, oxidize,

توجه: این مطلب در تاریخ 2019/06/07 12:19:44 به صورت خودکار از فضای وب آشکار توسط موتور جستجوی پاورپوینت جمع آوری شده است و در صورت اعلام عدم رضایت تهیه کننده ی آن، طبق قوانین سایت از روی وب گاه حذف خواهد شد. این مطلب از وب سایت زیر استخراج شده است و مسئولیت انتشار آن با منبع اصلی است.

https://go.roguecc.edu/sites/go.roguecc.edu/files/users/PLoozen/CHEM106/Ch.24Pt.2_001.ppt

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عبارات پرتکرار و مهم در این اسلاید عبارتند از: ., glycolysis, fermentation, f۲, nad, enzyme, alcohol, acid, acetyl, yeast, regulation, oxidize,

مشاهده محتوای متنیِ این اسلاید ppt

مشاهده محتوای متنیِ این اسلاید ppt

regulatory mechanisms for glycolysis include allosteric regulation ۲. hormonal control via enzyme phosphorylation ۳. substrate level control ۴. covalent modification phosphorylation via the kinase cascade regulation of glycolysis key regulatory enzymes in the glycolytic pathway include ۱. hexokinase substrate level regulation by glucose ۶ phosphate ۲. phosphofructokinase allosteric regulation by fructose ۲ ۶ bisphosphate f۲ ۶bp here amp adp atp citrate ۳. pyruvate kinase allosteric regulation by atp acetyl coa d fructose ۱ ۶ bisphosphate and covalent modification namely phosphorylation see figure ۱۶.۲۱ a very important enzyme called phosphofructokinase ۲ or pfk۲ but note that this is only part of this enzyme s activity makes an allosteric regulator of glycolysis f۲ ۶bp is not a glycolysis enzyme but its product is a very potent regulator of glycolysis and gluconeogenesis synthesis of glucose . as shown in figure ۱۶.۱۹ pfk۲ has a dual identity with one part the kinase part capable of making f۲ ۶b and the other part fructose ۲ ۶ bisphosphatase f۲ ۶bpase is capable of breaking down f۲ ۶bp. the kinase part of the enzyme is usually the part that is referred to as pfk۲ while the other part is usually called f۲ ۶bpase. figure ۱۶.۲ shows the interconversion of the two forms. basically phosphorylation by protein kinase a activates the f۲ ۶bpase while it inactivates the pfk۲. removal of the phosphate by phosphoprotein phosphatase reverses the activities causing pfk۲ to become active and the f۲ ۶bpase to become inactive. this makes sense for the following reasons. first when f۲ ۶bpase is active it degrades f۲ ۶bp. loss of f۲ ۶bp leaves phosphofructokinase of glycolysis less active slowing or stopping glycolysis. on the other hand when pfk۲ is active it makes f۲ ۶bp which activates phosphofructokinase of glycolysis and thus activates glycolysis. as you shall see below f۲ ۶bp has the opposite effects on gluconeogenesis. f۲ ۶bp inhibits the gluconeogenesis enzyme but in its absence the enzyme is active. regulatory mechanisms for glycolysis include ۱. allosteric regulation ۲. hormonal control via enzyme phosphorylation ۳. substrate level control ۴. covalent modification phosphorylation via the kinase cascade key regulatory enzymes in the glycolytic pathway include ۱. hexokinase substrate level regulation by glucose ۶ phosphate ۲. phosphofructokinase allosteric regulation by amp adp atp citrate and fructose ۲ ۶ bisphosphate ۳. pyruvate kinase allosteric regulation by d fructose۱ ۶ bisphosphate atp acetyl coa and phosphorylation three common fates of pyruvate what happens to the end products of glycolysis if o۲ is present for the completion of cell respiration formation of acetyl coa nadh forms is used at etc then oxidized back to nad co۲ is formed as a waste product formation of acetyl coa catalyzed by an enzyme complex pyruvate dehydrogenase first the carboxyl group is split off of the ۲ pyruvates as carbon dioxide then remaining two carbon acetyl fragment is oxidized and electrons transferred to nad making nadh finally the oxidized two carbon acetyl group is attached to coenzyme a creates acetyl coa ۲ pyruvic acid  ۲ acetate molecules  ۲ acetyl coenzyme a co۲ coenzyme a coa note that the two ۳ carbon pyruvic acid molecules have each lost a carbon to co۲ formation. the pyruvate or pyruvic acid from glycolysis in the cytosol has to enter the mitochondrial matrix by transport through the outer and inner mitochondrial membranes. this process costs a bit in terms of energy and carbon dioxide decarboxylation is released. so that in fact only two of the three carbons in each pyruvate molecule actually enter the kreb s cycle in the mitochondrial matrix. nad is reduced to nadh carrying electrons to the inner mitochondrial membrane to be used later in the electron transport chain. the acetyl coenzyme a molecules sometimes called active acetate are now ready for complete oxidation energy removed in the kreb s cycle. lactic acid lactate fermentation ethanol fermentation in the absence of o۲ glycolysis alone will still produce some atp. different organisms follow ۱ of ۲ different metabolic pathways each will regenerate nad fermentation yeasts single celled eukaryotic fungi and some bacteria can also do a different type of anaerobic respiration when o۲ isn’t readily available. not very efficient it’s just glycolysis with an extra bit added to recycle the nadh back to nad . fermentation is used by some organisms when oxygen isn’t readily available. the two main types are ethyl alcohol and lactic acid fermentation. alcoholic fermentation yeast excretions yum yum yeasts are facultative anaerobes they switch to fermentation when o۲ levels are low. yeasts are facultative anaerobes – they switch to fermentation when oxygen levels are low. in alcoholic fermentation ۳ c pyruvic acid is converted to co۲ and ethanol c۲h۵oh this recycles nad to keep glycolysis working glycolysis ۲ pyruvic acid released ۲ ethanol glucose pyruvic acid decarboxylated forming co۲ and ethanol nadh molecules oxidized back into nad . ethanol is the oxidizing agent helping nadh get oxidized back to nad . fermentation uses just the glycolysis process but nad must be replenished so the nadh molecules somehow must be oxidized back into nad . this is accomplished by decarboxylation forming co۲ and ethanol ethyl alcohol and making nadh oxidized back to nad . yeast is allowed to do anaerobic alcohol fermentation to produce ethyl alcohol. above ~۱۷ alcohol content the yeast die off. alcoholic fermentation in the wine and beer industry yeast is allowed to do anaerobic alcohol fermentation to produce ethyl alcohol. above ~۱۷ alcohol content the yeast die off. so hard alcohol has to be distilled to create a above the lethal limit. bakers also use yeast but they are taking the co۲ waste product to raise their dough. the alcohol is evaporated during baking. in lactic acid fermentation pyruvic acid is converted …

کلمات کلیدی پرکاربرد در این اسلاید پاورپوینت: ., glycolysis, fermentation, f۲, nad, enzyme, alcohol, acid, acetyl, yeast, regulation, oxidize,

این فایل پاورپوینت شامل 20 اسلاید و به زبان انگلیسی و حجم آن 1.09 مگا بایت است. نوع قالب فایل ppt بوده که با این لینک قابل دانلود است. این مطلب برگرفته از سایت زیر است و مسئولیت انتشار آن با منبع اصلی می باشد که در تاریخ 2019/06/07 12:19:44 استخراج شده است.

https://go.roguecc.edu/sites/go.roguecc.edu/files/users/PLoozen/CHEM106/Ch.24Pt.2_001.ppt

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