Introduction to Interrupts

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فهرست عناوین اصلی در این پاورپوینت

● William Stallings
Computer Organization
and Architecture
● Architecture Review – Program Concept
● What is a program?
● Function of Control Unit
● Components
● Computer Components:
Top Level View
● Simplified Instruction Cycle
● Fetch Cycle
● Execute Cycle
● Hypothetical Machine
● Example of Program Execution
● Modifications to Instruction Cycle
● Instruction Cycle –
State Diagram
● Introduction to Interrupts
● Interrupt Examples
● Interrupt Cycle
● Instruction Cycle (with Interrupts) – State Diagram
● Multiple Interrupts
● Multiple Interrupts – Sequential
● Multiple Interrupts – Nested
● Sample Time Sequence of Multiple Interrupts
● Connecting
● Memory Connection
● Input/Output Connection(1)
● Input/Output Connection(2)
● CPU Connection
● Buses
● What is a Bus?
● Bus Interconnection Scheme
● Data Bus
● Address bus
● Control Bus
● Big and Yellow?
● Single Bus Problems
● Traditional (ISA)
(with cache)
● High Performance Bus – Mezzanine Architecture
● Direct Memory Access
● Bus Types
● Bus Arbitration
● Centralized Arbitration
● Distributed Arbitration
● Bus Arbitration Implementations – Centralized
● Bus Arbitration Implementation – Decentralized
● Timing
● Synchronous Timing Diagram
Read Operation Timing
● Synchronous – Disadvantages
● Asynchronous Bus
● Asynchronous Timing Diagram

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interrupt, instruction, memory, processor, program, priority, cycle, datum, control, address, t,

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عبارات پرتکرار و مهم در این اسلاید عبارتند از: interrupt, instruction, memory, processor, program, priority, cycle, datum, control, address, t,

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william stallings computer organization and architecture chapter ۳ instruction cycle review system buses architecture review program concept hardwired systems are inflexible lots of work to re wire or re toggle general purpose hardware can do different tasks given correct control signals instead of re wiring supply a new set of control signals instruction codes instruction interpreter control signals general purpose logic data results what is a program software a sequence of steps for each step an arithmetic or logical operation is done for each operation a different set of control signals is needed – i.e. an instruction function of control unit for each operation a unique code is provided e.g. add move a hardware segment accepts the code and issues the control signals we have a computer components central processing unit control unit arithmetic and logic unit data and instructions need to get into the cpu and results out input output temporary storage of code and results is needed main memory computer components top level view simplified instruction cycle two steps fetch execute fetch cycle program counter pc holds address of next instruction to fetch processor fetches instruction from memory location pointed to by pc increment pc unless told otherwise instruction loaded into instruction register ir processor interprets instruction and performs required actions execute cycle processor memory data transfer between cpu and main memory processor i o data transfer between cpu and i o module data processing some arithmetic or logical operation on data control alteration of sequence of operations e.g. jump combination of above hypothetical machine instruction format address range integer format data range registers pc program counter ir instruction register ac accumulator partial list of opcodes ۱ load ac from memory ۱ store ac to memory ۱ ۱ add to ac from memory opcode address s magnitude ۳ ۴ ۱۵ ۱ ۱۵ example of program execution modifications to instruction cycle simple example always added one to pc entire operand fetched with instruction more complex examples might need more complex instruction address calculation consider a ۶۴ bit processor variable length instructions instruction set design might require repeat trip to memory to fetch operand in particular if memory address range exceeds word size operand store might require many trips to memory vector calculation instruction cycle state diagram start here introduction to interrupts we will have more to say about interrupts later interrupts are a mechanism by which other modules e.g. i o may interrupt normal sequence of processing four general classes of interrupts program e.g. overflow division by zero timer generated by internal processor timer used in pre emptive multi tasking i o from i o controller hardware failure e.g. memory parity error particularly useful when one module is much slower than another e.g. disk access milliseconds vs. cpu microseconds or faster interrupt examples interrupt cycle added to instruction cycle processor checks for interrupt indicated by an interrupt signal if no interrupt fetch next instruction if interrupt pending suspend execution of current program save context what does this mean set pc to start address of interrupt handler routine process interrupt restore context and continue interrupted program instruction cycle with interrupts state diagram multiple interrupts disable interrupts – sequential processing processor will ignore further interrupts whilst processing one interrupt interrupts remain pending and are checked after first interrupt has been processed interrupts handled in sequence as they occur define priorities – nested processing low priority interrupts can be interrupted by higher priority interrupts when higher priority interrupt has been processed processor returns to previous interrupt multiple interrupts sequential disabled interrupts – nice and simple multiple interrupts nested how to handle state with an arbitrary number of interrupts sample time sequence of multiple interrupts user program printer isr comm isr disk isr t ۱ t ۴ t ۱۵ t ۲۵ t ۲۵ t ۳۵ t priority ۲ priority ۵ priority ۴ disk can’t interrupt higher priority comm note often low numbers are higher priority connecting all the units must be connected different type of connection for different type of unit memory input output cpu memory connection memory typically consists of n words of equal length addressed from to n ۱ receives and sends data to …

کلمات کلیدی پرکاربرد در این اسلاید پاورپوینت: interrupt, instruction, memory, processor, program, priority, cycle, datum, control, address, t,

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