Botswana: A Small Developmental State in Africa

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● Botswana: A Small Developmental State in Africa
● 1. Policy towards avoidance of external debt and stabilization of public expenditure
● Botswana: current public revenue and expenditure, 1971-1995 (Pula millions)
● Explanation 2: Good governance and institutions
● Second Phase 1975 to 1989: Consolidation of both market based & multi-party system
● Questions?

نوع زبان: انگلیسی حجم: 3.71 مگا بایت
نوع فایل: اسلاید پاورپوینت تعداد اسلایدها: 37 صفحه
سطح مطلب: نامشخص پسوند فایل: ppt
گروه موضوعی: زمان استخراج مطلب: 2019/06/07 07:46:22

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عبارات مهم استفاده شده در این مطلب

عبارات مهم استفاده شده در این مطلب

state, ., development, s, developmental, capacity, botswana, africa, ‘, `, ability, lead,

توجه: این مطلب در تاریخ 2019/06/07 07:46:22 به صورت خودکار از فضای وب آشکار توسط موتور جستجوی پاورپوینت جمع آوری شده است و در صورت اعلام عدم رضایت تهیه کننده ی آن، طبق قوانین سایت از روی وب گاه حذف خواهد شد. این مطلب از وب سایت زیر استخراج شده است و مسئولیت انتشار آن با منبع اصلی است.

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عبارات پرتکرار و مهم در این اسلاید عبارتند از: state, ., development, s, developmental, capacity, botswana, africa, ‘, `, ability, lead,

مشاهده محتوای متنیِ این اسلاید ppt

مشاهده محتوای متنیِ این اسلاید ppt

botswana a small developmental state in africa developmental states thinking on the role of the state in development has differed over past ۵ years state led development was encouraged supported in the ۱۹۵ s and ۱۹۶ s state led development was then criticised in ۱۹۷ s early ۱۹۸ s as inefficient and distorting in the light of growing debt and economic problems in africa and s.america structural adjustment and market oriented reforms washington consensus role of the state in development was re evaluated based on the successful experiences of state led development in asian tigers since the mid ۱۹۹ s each of these stages has reflected the lessons learned from the previous one s  while too much faith seems to have been placed in state led development in the ۱۹۵ s and ۱۹۶ s efforts to curtail the state in the ۱۹۸ s and ۱۹۹ s were perhaps too strong and dogmatic since the end of the ۱۹۹ s accelerated development has spread further in asia and is increasingly including the indian sub continent ۱۹۹۷ world development report was dedicated to ‘rethinking the state’ and reaffirmed the position that ‘the state is central to economic and social development’ growing awareness that the orientation and effectiveness of the state is the critical variable explaining why some countries succeed whereas others fail in meeting development goals state capacity and effectiveness is the key bottleneck in africa’s ability to meet the millennium development goals recognition of the developmental success of east asia has led to new thinking on what states should accomplish a developmental state project must possess at least two essential attributes ۱. the state must have the capacity to control a vast majority of its territory and possess a set of core capacities that will enable it to design and deliver policies ۲. the project must involve some degree of reach and inclusion and have an institutional long term perspective that transcends any specific political figure adrian leftwich emphasises commitment  in his view an ideal type developmental state is one that demonstrates a ‘determination and ability to stimulate direct shape and cooperate with the domestic private sector and arrange or supervise mutually acceptable deals with foreign interests’ thus a developmental state is broadly understood as one that evinces a clear commitment to a national development agenda that has solid capacity and reach and that seeks to provide growth as well as poverty reduction and the provision of public services developmental state good governance core aspect emphasis on state capacity and ‘embedded autonomy’ emphasis on transparency and accountability political regime no normative commitment to any particular type of political regime though many examples of ‘successful’ developmental states are authoritarian normative commitment to democracy. strengthening democratic rule is a key concern state legitimacy derived from state achievements and performance derived from democratic representation of interests of the majority and the protection of the rights of the minority based on rules and procedures political will concern for national goals commitment of core leadership is essential concern for effective constraints normative orientation legitimacy human rights democracy macroeconomic balance role of the state state should actively foster economic development but avoid capture by particular groups no clear agreement among various proponents state should set a framework rule of law for markets private actors the attributes of developmental states embody the following capacities regulatory capacity – ability to establish and enforce rules throughout the society including the traditional and religious realms administrative capacity ability to manage the personnel and resources of the state and to ensure accountability and efficiency in service delivery technical capacity expertise and knowledge required to make and implement technical decisions as well as the policy tools and instruments necessary to implement those decisions effectively extractive capacity to raise the revenues needed by the state to pay for the expenses of implementing state policies and goals – includes the revenue for hiring paying and providing public servants with the resources to work with developmental states and public services by the above definition are rare in africa outside of south africa namibia botswana and mauritius the quest for the developmental state elsewhere in africa has proved highly elusive top ten best governed ssa states on the ibrahim index ۱. mauritius ۲. seychelles ۳. botswana ۴. cape verde ۵. south africa ۶. gabon ۷. namibia ۸. ghana ۹. senegal ۱ . sao tome and principe  the challenges of development are firstly political botswana was extremely poor at independence – is now a middle income country it was landlocked surrounded by hostile neighbours but also resource rich i.e. potential disaster in terms of the resource curse it did not simply pursue the right policies we have to ask what were the dynamics of botswana’s ability to avoid the sort of problems its neighbours encountered i.e. what were the politics that made it possible at independence in ۱۹۶۶ botswana was rated among the poorest states in the world with a per capita gdp of only us ۲۸۳ by ۲ ۱ botswana’s had attained the status of an upper middle income country. between ۱۹۶۶ and ۱۹۹۹ botswana had the highest rate of economic growth in the world and way ahead of rest of africa life expectancy at birth was estimated at ۵ years in ۱۹۶۵ rose to ۶۸ in ۱۹۹۵ then dropped to ۵۹ by ۲ ۱ hiv aids infant mortality was ۱ ۸ per ۱ live births had dropped to ۴۲ by ۲ ۹ adult literacy rate was ۳۴ in ۱۹۷ had risen to ۸۱ by ۲ ۱  has enjoyed peace stability and democracy since independence botswana was a livestock economy until ۱۹۶۷ when diamond mining commenced before ۱۹۶۷ agriculture accounted for ۴ of the total gdp contribution of mining particularly diamond mining to gdp rose from ۱.۶ in ۱۹۶۷ to ۳۴ of the country s gdp and ۵ of its tax revenues mining’s share of total government revenue was virtually zero in ۱۹۶۷ rose to between …

کلمات کلیدی پرکاربرد در این اسلاید پاورپوینت: state, ., development, s, developmental, capacity, botswana, africa, ‘, `, ability, lead,

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