Preamble about composting in Europe

فهرست عناوین اصلی در این پاورپوینت

فهرست عناوین اصلی در این پاورپوینت

● Course 2 Unit 6
Part a
● This unit deals with which part of the sanitation system?
● Preamble about composting in Europe
● Extent of separate biowaste collection in Europe
● Amount of biowaste treated in Germany in composting plants (in million tons)
● Development of source separation and composting in Europe
● What is “compost” and “composting”?
● Composting and anaerobic digestion (AD) can be competing processes to treat organic solid waste
● Applications of composting process in ecosan concept
● 2 levels of excreta treatment: primary, secondary
● Secondary treatment options for faeces
● Reminder of terms (1): “Indicator organisms”
● Reminder of terms (2): what is “organic”?
● Reminder of terms (3): what is “humic acid”?
● Composting fundamentals overview
● Composting process microbiology
● Phases during composting as measured by carbon dioxide respiration and temperature
● Five basic process steps of technical composting operation (at the large scale)
● Amendments and bulking agents
● Main technical methods of large-scale composting (brief summary)
● Example of home composting (static process)
● Design considerations for composting systems
● Possible reasons for process failure (related to the table on the previous slide)
● Example C/N ratios for several waste types
● Guidelines for design: space requirement
● Practical points: the impact of ambient temperature
● Main indicators for composting process failure
● Possible compost prices
● Operating costs for semi-centralised composting processes
● Compost marketing hierarchy indicating market prices (in €/ton or €/m3)
● Possible compost yields
● Types of compost end products according to German standardisation
● Explanations on different compost types and effects on plants
● An experience with compost
● Question: “Is compost a soil conditioner or a fertiliser?”
● Standardised methods for compost analysis

نوع زبان: انگلیسی حجم: 8.77 مگا بایت
نوع فایل: اسلاید پاورپوینت تعداد اسلایدها: 44 صفحه
سطح مطلب: نامشخص پسوند فایل: ppt
گروه موضوعی: زمان استخراج مطلب: 2019/06/08 12:06:46

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عبارات مهم استفاده شده در این مطلب

عبارات مهم استفاده شده در این مطلب

composting, compost, part, waste, faeces, organic, ., toilet, material, –, process, solid,

توجه: این مطلب در تاریخ 2019/06/08 12:06:46 به صورت خودکار از فضای وب آشکار توسط موتور جستجوی پاورپوینت جمع آوری شده است و در صورت اعلام عدم رضایت تهیه کننده ی آن، طبق قوانین سایت از روی وب گاه حذف خواهد شد. این مطلب از وب سایت زیر استخراج شده است و مسئولیت انتشار آن با منبع اصلی است.

https://ocw.un-ihe.org/pluginfile.php/650/mod_folder/content/0/Course2_Unit6_Introduction_to_composting_Part_A_.ppt

در صورتی که محتوای فایل ارائه شده با عنوان مطلب سازگار نبود یا مطلب مذکور خلاف قوانین کشور بود لطفا در بخش دیدگاه (در پایین صفحه) به ما اطلاع دهید تا بعد از بررسی در کوتاه ترین زمان نسبت به حدف با اصلاح آن اقدام نماییم. جهت جستجوی پاورپوینت های بیشتر بر روی اینجا کلیک کنید.

عبارات پرتکرار و مهم در این اسلاید عبارتند از: composting, compost, part, waste, faeces, organic, ., toilet, material, –, process, solid,

مشاهده محتوای متنیِ این اسلاید ppt

مشاهده محتوای متنیِ این اسلاید ppt

course ۲ unit ۶ part a teacher mariska ronteltap m.ronteltap@unesco ihe.org introduction to composting course ۲ unit ۶ introduction to composting part a – fundamentals and design considerations part b – vermicomposting in separate file part c – engineered composting toilets in separate file part d – examples and case studies in separate file this unit deals with which part of the sanitation system the composting process is used to sanitise faeces either in composting toilets or in a centralised composting system with the aim to produce an end product suitable for reuse in agriculture pathogen kill is achieved through the raised temperatures in the compost heap which are sustained for a certain period of time re use in agriculture part d treatment storage part c part b part a house hold toilet part e crop grown with ecosan products as fertiliser closing the loop collection transport transport household toilets but can also include showers bath tubs sinks urine faeces greywater transport road based vehicles in combination with pipes treatment for faeces and greywater storage for urine transport of sanitised urine and faeces by truck treated greywater transport by pipes sale of fertiliser sanitised human excreta irrigation with treated greywater preamble about composting in europe composting is widely used in europe germany being the leader to treat organic solid waste which is collected separately from households in many municipalities – see next slide there is a vast amount of know how on composting as a secondary treatment process semi centralised or centralised with using organic solid waste or sewage sludge as an input material challenges for us ecosan people we have to harness this knowledge and apply it to faecal matter as an input material devise simple low cost processes that can be used at community level in germany there are currently ۴۸۵ composting plants with ral quality assurance and in total about ۸ composting plants which treat organic solid waste no faeces data from annette ochs ۲۳ april ۲ ۷ extent of separate biowaste collection in europe germany de has the highest collection level in europe eu ۲۵ no means ۲۵ european member states plus norway now there are ۲۷ . treatment predominantly by composting or anaerobic digestion how is the biowaste organic kitchen and garden waste collected remember this picture from course ۲ unit ۳ storage and transport paper bin for biowaste for composting other waste for example at my house in ede the netherlands kerbside collection fortnightly for the brown bin amount of biowaste treated in germany in composting plants in million tons source bundesgütegemeinschaft kompost e.v. ۱۹. kasseler abfallforum april ۲ ۷ obtained via annette ochs course ۲ unit ۶ development of source separation and composting in europe source european compost network ecn http www.compostnetwork.info index.php id ۱ note the article did not state for which year this situation was it might have changed by now part a fundamentals and design considerations course ۲ unit ۶ compost from www.wikipedia.org note compost is a popular term which is used for all sorts of materials even if they are not really true compost e.g. faeces that have been just air dried – be careful. course ۲ unit ۶ what is compost and composting compost is the aerobically decomposed remnants of organic materials those with plant and animal origins . compost is used in gardening and agriculture as a soil amendment and commercially by the landscaping and container nursery industries. it is also used for erosion control land stream reclamation wetland construction and as landfill cover see compost uses . compost is also used as a seed starting medium generally mixed with a small portion of sand for improved drainage. composting is the process of producing compost through aerobic decomposition of biodegradable organic matter. the decomposition is performed primarily by aerobes although larger creatures such as ants nematodes and oligochaete worms also contribute. source www.wikipedia.org which materials can be a substrate input material for composting in order of importance for ecosan concept dried faeces from udd toilets faecal sludge organic solid waste kitchen residue animal waste agricultural waste sludges from centralised wastewater treatment plants i.e. this includes faeces materials ۳ – ۵ are already widely composted materials ۱ and ۲ are new compost samples from romanian udd toilets with secondary composting displayed by margriet samwel from wecf at ecosan seminar in bulgaria april ۲ ۷ moisture content and c n ratio may have to be adjusted by adding water or wet kitchen waste composting and anaerobic digestion ad can be competing processes to treat organic solid waste composting may be preferred over ad in the following cases for dry solid input materials e.g. ۵ d.s. some organic matter is more amenable to composting than to ad e.g. garden clippings leaves high lignin content when a higher quality soil conditioner is desired fewer pathogens in compost compared to digester residue drier product  can be transported more easily easier to sell but less nitrogen content nitrogen losses during aeration when there is no need or use for biogas energy e.g. in germany anaerobic digestion appears to be gaining the upper hand compared to composting because of the desire to produce green energy climate change issues when a system with lower investment costs is desired less know how required for construction of composting processes compared to ad when some odour emissions are acceptable population density low – composting processes are usually not enclosed although a building could be constructed around it applications of composting process in ecosan concept thermophilic composting ۵۵ ۶۵°c as secondary treatment of faeces in semi centralised composting plants e.g. co composting of faeces or faecal sludge with organic solid waste at semi centralised level mesophilic composting ۳۵°c in composting toilets for primary treatment of faeces see part c for more details on composting toilets most of the traditional composting toilets have no urine diversion in recent times urine diversion has been added careful some people call …

کلمات کلیدی پرکاربرد در این اسلاید پاورپوینت: composting, compost, part, waste, faeces, organic, ., toilet, material, –, process, solid,

این فایل پاورپوینت شامل 44 اسلاید و به زبان انگلیسی و حجم آن 8.77 مگا بایت است. نوع قالب فایل ppt بوده که با این لینک قابل دانلود است. این مطلب برگرفته از سایت زیر است و مسئولیت انتشار آن با منبع اصلی می باشد که در تاریخ 2019/06/08 12:06:46 استخراج شده است.

https://ocw.un-ihe.org/pluginfile.php/650/mod_folder/content/0/Course2_Unit6_Introduction_to_composting_Part_A_.ppt

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