Congestive Heart Failure

فهرست عناوین اصلی در این پاورپوینت

فهرست عناوین اصلی در این پاورپوینت

● Congestive Heart Failure
● Congestive Heart Failure
Definition
● Factors Affecting Cardiac Output
● Pathophysiology of CHF
● Congestive Heart Failure
Risk Factors
● Congestive Heart Failure
Etiology
● Congestive Heart Failure
Types of Congestive Heart Failure
● Acute Congestive Heart Failure
Clinical Manifestations
● Pulmonary Edema
● Chronic Congestive Heart Failure
Clinical Manifestations
● Congestive Heart Failure
Classification
● Congestive Heart Failure
Diagnostic Studies
● Acute Congestive Heart Failure
Nursing and Collaborative Management
● Chronic Congestive Heart Failure
Collaborative Care
● Chronic Congestive Heart Failure
Drug Therapy
● Chronic Congestive Heart Failure
Nutritional Therapy
● Chronic Congestive Heart Failure
Nursing Management
Nursing Assessment
● Chronic Congestive Heart Failure
Nursing Management
Nursing Diagnoses
● Chronic Congestive Heart Failure
Nursing Management
Planning
● Chronic Congestive Heart Failure
Nursing Management
Nursing Implementation

نوع زبان: انگلیسی حجم: 0.35 مگا بایت
نوع فایل: اسلاید پاورپوینت تعداد اسلایدها: 43 صفحه
سطح مطلب: نامشخص پسوند فایل: ppt
گروه موضوعی: زمان استخراج مطلب: 2019/06/14 11:52:38

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عبارات مهم استفاده شده در این مطلب

عبارات مهم استفاده شده در این مطلب

heart, failure, congestive, cardiac, min, nursing, ., co, volume, output, →, decrease,

توجه: این مطلب در تاریخ 2019/06/14 11:52:38 به صورت خودکار از فضای وب آشکار توسط موتور جستجوی پاورپوینت جمع آوری شده است و در صورت اعلام عدم رضایت تهیه کننده ی آن، طبق قوانین سایت از روی وب گاه حذف خواهد شد. این مطلب از وب سایت زیر استخراج شده است و مسئولیت انتشار آن با منبع اصلی است.

http://www.uwindsor.ca/users/s/sfox/63-273.nsf/831fc2c71873e46285256d6e006c367a/5546ff67f6bd1abd85256f4300072de9/%24FILE/CongestiveHeartFailure.ppt

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عبارات پرتکرار و مهم در این اسلاید عبارتند از: heart, failure, congestive, cardiac, min, nursing, ., co, volume, output, →, decrease,

مشاهده محتوای متنیِ این اسلاید ppt

مشاهده محتوای متنیِ این اسلاید ppt

congestive heart failure congestive heart failure definition impaired cardiac pumping such that heart is unable to pump adequate amount of blood to meet metabolic needs not a disease but a syndrome associated with long standing htn and cad factors affecting cardiac output cardiac output preload afterload contractility heart rate stroke volume x factors affecting cardiac output heart rate in general the higher the heart rate the lower the cardiac e.g. hr x sv co ۶ min x ۸ ml ۴۸ ml min ۴.۸ l min ۷ min x ۸ ml ۵۶ ml min ۵.۶ l min but only up to a point. with excessively high heart rates diastolic filling time begins to fall thus causing stroke volume and thus co to fall heart rate stroke volume cardiac output ۶ min ۸ ml ۴.۸ l min ۸ min ۸ ml ۶.۴ l min ۱ min ۸ ml ۸. l min ۱۳ min ۵ ml ۶.۵ l min ۱۵ min ۴ ml ۶. l min factors affecting cardiac output preload the volume of blood amount of fiber stretch in the ventricles at the end of diastole i.e. before the next contraction factors affecting cardiac output preload increases with fluid volume increases vasoconstriction squeezes blood from vascular system into heart preload decreases with fluid volume losses vasodilation able to hold more blood therefore less returning toheart factors affecting cardiac output starling’s law describes the relationship between preload and cardiac output the greater the heart muscle fibers are stretched b c of increases in volume the greater their subsequentforce of contraction – but only up to a point. beyond that point fibers get over stretched and the force of contraction is reduced excessive preload excessive stretch → reduced contraction → reduced sv co factors affecting cardiac output afterload the resistance against which the ventricle must pump. excessive afterload difficult to pump blood → reduced co sv afterload increased with hypertension vasoconstriction afterload decreased with vasodilation factors affecting cardiac output contractility ability of the heart muscle to contract relates to the strength of contraction. factors affecting cardiac output contractility decreased with infarcted tissue – no contractile strength ischemic tissue – reduced contractile strength. electrolyte acid base imbalance negative inotropes medications that decrease contractility such as beta blockers . contractility increased with sympathetic stimulation effects of epinephrine positive inotropes medications that increase contractility such as digoxin sympathomimmetics pathophysiology of chf pump fails → decreased stroke volume co. compensatory mechanisms kick in to increase co sns stimulation → release of epinephrine nor epinephrine increase hr increase contractility peripheral vasoconstriction increases afterload myocardial hypertrophy walls of heart thicken to provide more muscle mass → stronger contractions pathophysiology of chf hormonal response ↓’d renal perfusion interpreted by juxtaglomerular apparatus as hypovolemia. thus kidneys release renin which stimulates conversion of antiotensin i → angiotensin ii which causes aldosterone release → na retention and water retention via adh secretion peripheral vasoconstriction pathophysiology of chf compensatory mechanisms may restore co to near normal. but if excessive the compensatory mechanisms can worsen heart failure because . . . pathophysiology of chf vasoconstriction ↑’s the resistance against which heart has to pump i.e. ↑’s afterload and may therefore ↓ co na and water retention ↑’s fluid volume which ↑’s preload. if too much stretch d t too much fluid → ↓ strength of contraction and ↓’s co excessive tachycardia → ↓’d diastolic filling time → ↓’d ventricular filling → ↓’d sv and co congestive heart failure risk factors cad age htn obesity cigarette smoking diabetes mellitus high cholesterol african descent congestive heart failure etiology may be caused by any interference with normal mechanisms regulating cardiac output co common causes htn myocardial infarction dysrhythmias valvular disorders congestive heart failure types of congestive heart failure left sided failure most common form blood backs up through the left atrium into the pulmonary veins pulmonary congestion and edema eventually leads to biventricular failure congestive heart failure types of congestive heart failure left sided failure most common cause htn cardiomyopathy valvular disorders cad myocardial infarction congestive heart failure types of congestive heart failure right sided failure results from diseased right ventricle blood backs up into right atrium and venous circulation causes lvf cor pulmonale rv infarction congestive heart failure types of congestive heart failure right sided failure venous congestion peripheral edema hepatomegaly splenomegaly jugular venous distension congestive heart failure types of congestive heart failure right sided failure primary cause is left sided failure cor pulmonale rv dilation and hypertrophy caused by pulmonary pathology acute congestive heart failure clinical manifestations pulmonary edema what will you hear agitation pale or cyanotic cold clammy skin severe dyspnea tachypnea pink frothy sputum pulmonary edema fig. ۳۴ ۲ chronic congestive heart failure clinical manifestations fatigue dyspnea paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea pnd tachycardia edema – lung liver abdomen legs nocturia chronic congestive heart failure clinical manifestations behavioral changes restlessness confusion  attention span chest pain d t  co and ↑ myocardial work weight changes r t fluid retention skin changes dusky appearance congestive heart failure classification based on the person’s tolerance to physical activity class ۱ no limitation of physical activity class ۲ slight limitation class ۳ marked limitation class ۴ inability to carry on any physical activity without discomfort congestive heart failure diagnostic studies primary goal is to determine underlying cause physical exam chest x ray ecg hemodynamic assessment congestive heart failure diagnostic studies primary goal is to determine underlying cause echocardiogram uses ultrasound to visualize myocardial structures and movement calculate ef cardiac catheterization acute congestive heart failure nursing and collaborative management primary goal is to improve lv function by decreasing intravascular volume decreasing venous return decreasing afterload improving gas exchange and oxygenation improving cardiac function reducing anxiety acute congestive heart failure nursing and collaborative management decreasing intravascular volume improves lv function by reducing venous return loop diuretic drug of choice reduces preload high fowler’s position acute congestive heart failure nursing and collaborative management decreasing afterload drug therapy vasodilation ace inhibitors decreases pulmonary congestion acute congestive heart failure nursing and collaborative management improving cardiac function positive inotropes improving gas exchange and oxygenation administer oxygen sometimes intubate and ventilate reducing anxiety morphine chronic congestive heart failure collaborative care treat underlying cause maximize co alleviate symptoms chronic congestive heart failure collaborative care oxygen treatment rest biventricular pacing cardiac transplantation chronic congestive heart failure drug therapy ace inhibitors diuretics inotropic drugs vasodilators  adrenergic blockers chronic congestive heart failure nutritional therapy fluid restrictions not commonly prescribed sodium restriction ۲ g sodium diet daily weights same time each day wearing same type of clothing chronic congestive heart failure nursing management nursing assessment past health history medications functional health problems cold diaphoretic skin chronic congestive heart failure nursing management nursing assessment tachypnea tachycardia crackles abdominal distension restlessness chronic congestive heart failure nursing management nursing diagnoses activity intolerance excess fluid volume disturbed sleep pattern impaired gas exchange anxiety chronic congestive heart failure nursing management planning overall goals  peripheral edema  shortness of breath  exercise tolerance drug compliance no complications chronic congestive heart failure nursing management nursing implementation acute intervention establishment of quality of life goals symptom management conservation of physical emotional energy support systems are essential …

کلمات کلیدی پرکاربرد در این اسلاید پاورپوینت: heart, failure, congestive, cardiac, min, nursing, ., co, volume, output, →, decrease,

این فایل پاورپوینت شامل 43 اسلاید و به زبان انگلیسی و حجم آن 0.35 مگا بایت است. نوع قالب فایل ppt بوده که با این لینک قابل دانلود است. این مطلب برگرفته از سایت زیر است و مسئولیت انتشار آن با منبع اصلی می باشد که در تاریخ 2019/06/14 11:52:38 استخراج شده است.

http://www.uwindsor.ca/users/s/sfox/63-273.nsf/831fc2c71873e46285256d6e006c367a/5546ff67f6bd1abd85256f4300072de9/%24FILE/CongestiveHeartFailure.ppt

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