8.1 The Search for Origins

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● Formation of the Solar System
● 8.1 The Search for Origins
● How did we arrive at a theory of solar system formation?
● What properties of our solar system must a formation theory explain?
● Nebular Theory
● Close Encounter Hypothesis
● Where did the solar system come from?
● Galactic Recycling
● Evidence from Other Gas Clouds
● What have we learned?
● 8.2 Explaining the Major Features of the Solar System
● What caused the orderly patterns of motion in our solar system?
● Conservation of Angular Momentum
● Flattening
● Disks around Other Stars
● Why are there two major types of planets?
● Conservation of Energy
● How did the terrestrial planets form?
● Accretion of Planetesimals
● How did the jovian planets form?
● Solar Rotation
● Where did asteroids and comets come from?
● Asteroids and Comets
● Heavy Bombardment
● Origin of Earth’s Water
● How do we explain “exceptions to the rules”?
● Captured Moons
● How do we explain the existence of our Moon?
● Giant Impact
● Odd Rotation
● Thought Question
● Was our solar system destined to be?
● Thought Question
● What have we learned?
● 8.3 The Age of the Solar System
● How do we measure the age of a rock ?
● Radioactive Decay
● Thought Question
● How do we know the age of the solar system?
● What have we learned?

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., inc., ۱۴, pearson, education, solar, planet, form, system, do, cloud, theory,

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http://www.astro.gsu.edu/~martens/Sushant/Ch08/08_LectureOutline.ppt

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chapter ۸ lecture the cosmic perspective seventh edition formation of the solar system ۲ ۱۴ pearson education inc. formation of the solar system ۲ ۱۴ pearson education inc. ۸.۱ the search for origins our goals for learning how did we arrive at a theory of solar system formation where did the solar system come from ۲ ۱۴ pearson education inc. how did we arrive at a theory of solar system formation four major features needed to be explained several reasonable hypotheses were explored nebular hypothesis close encounter hypothesis ۲ ۱۴ pearson education inc. what properties of our solar system must a formation theory explain patterns of motion of the large bodies orbit in same direction and plane existence of two types of planets terrestrial and jovian existence of smaller bodies asteroids and comets notable exceptions to usual patterns rotation of uranus earth s moon etc. ۲ ۱۴ pearson education inc. nebular theory the nebular theory states that our solar system formed from the gravitational collapse of a giant interstellar gas cloud—the solar nebula. nebula is the latin word for cloud. kant and laplace proposed the nebular hypothesis over two centuries ago. a large amount of evidence now supports this idea. ۲ ۱۴ pearson education inc. close encounter hypothesis a rival idea proposed that the planets formed from debris torn off the sun by a close encounter with another star. that hypothesis could not explain observed motions and types of planets. ۲ ۱۴ pearson education inc. where did the solar system come from ۲ ۱۴ pearson education inc. galactic recycling elements that formed planets were made in stars and then recycled through interstellar space. insert tcp۷e figure ۸.۱ ۲ ۱۴ pearson education inc. evidence from other gas clouds we can see stars forming in other interstellar gas clouds lending support to the nebular theory. ۲ ۱۴ pearson education inc. what have we learned how did we arrive at a theory of solar system formation hypotheses arose to explain four major features of the solar system testing and observation leads from hypothesis to theory. where did the solar system come from the nebular theory states that solar system formed from a large interstellar gas cloud. galactic recycling built the elements from which planets formed. ۲ ۱۴ pearson education inc. ۸.۲ explaining the major features of the solar system our goals for learning what caused the orderly patterns of motion in our solar system why are there two major types of planets where did asteroids and comets come from how do we explain exceptions to the rules ۲ ۱۴ pearson education inc. what caused the orderly patterns of motion in our solar system ۲ ۱۴ pearson education inc. what caused the orderly patterns of motion in our solar system ۲ ۱۴ pearson education inc. conservation of angular momentum rotation speed of the cloud from which our solar system formed must have increased as the cloud contracted. ۲ ۱۴ pearson education inc. conservation of angular momentum rotation of a contracting cloud speeds up for the same reason a skater speeds up as she pulls in her arms. ۲ ۱۴ pearson education inc. collapse of solar nebula.html flattening collisions between particles in the cloud caused it to flatten into a disk. ۲ ۱۴ pearson education inc. flattening collisions between gas particles in cloud gradually reduce random motions. ۲ ۱۴ pearson education inc. flattening collisions between gas particles also reduce up and down motions. ۲ ۱۴ pearson education inc. flattening spinning cloud flattens as it shrinks. ۲ ۱۴ pearson education inc. disks around other stars observations of disks around other stars support the nebular hypothesis. ۲ ۱۴ pearson education inc. why are there two major types of planets ۲ ۱۴ pearson education inc. conservation of energy as gravity causes cloud to contract it heats up. ۲ ۱۴ pearson education inc. conservation of energy inner parts of disk are hotter than outer parts. rock can be solid at much greater temperatures than ice. ۲ ۱۴ pearson education inc. conservation of energy inside the frost line too hot for hydrogen compounds to form ices outside the frost line cold enough for ices to form pick up image ۲ ۱۴ pearson education inc. how did the terrestrial planets form small particles of rock and metal were present inside the frost line. planetesimals of rock and metal built up as these particles collided. gravity eventually assembled these planetesimals into terrestrial planets. ۲ ۱۴ pearson education inc. how did the terrestrial planets form tiny solid particles stick to form planetesimals. ۲ ۱۴ pearson education inc. how did the terrestrial planets form gravity draws planetesimals together to form planets. this process of assembly is called accretion. ۲ ۱۴ pearson education inc. same as previous accretion of planetesimals many smaller objects collected into just a few large ones. ۲ ۱۴ pearson education inc. how did the jovian planets form ice could also form small particles outside the frost line. larger planetesimals and planets were able to form. gravity of these larger planets was able to draw in surrounding h and he gases. ۲ ۱۴ pearson education inc. how did the jovian planets form gravity of rock and ice in jovian planets draws in h and he gases. ۲ ۱۴ pearson education inc. how did the jovian planets form moons of jovian planets form in miniature disks. ۲ ۱۴ pearson education inc. how did the jovian planets form a combination of photons and the solar wind —outflowing matter from the sun—blew away the leftover gases. ۲ ۱۴ pearson education inc. solar rotation in nebular theory young sun rotated much faster than now. friction between solar magnetic field and solar nebular probably slowed the rotation over time. ۲ ۱۴ pearson education inc. where did asteroids and comets come from ۲ ۱۴ pearson education inc. asteroids and comets leftovers from the accretion process rocky asteroids inside frost line icy comets outside frost line ۲ ۱۴ pearson education inc. heavy bombardment leftover planetesimals bombarded other objects in the late stages of solar system formation. ۲ ۱۴ pearson education inc. origin of earth s water water may have come to earth by way of icy planetesimals. ۲ ۱۴ pearson education inc. how do we explain exceptions to the rules ۲ ۱۴ pearson education inc. captured moons unusual moons of some planets may be captured planetesimals. ۲ ۱۴ pearson education inc. these are phobos …

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