Why is the deep ocean filled with cold water?

فهرست عناوین اصلی در این پاورپوینت

فهرست عناوین اصلی در این پاورپوینت

● Why is the deep ocean filled with cold water?
● Water masses and water types
● How to track the water masses
from temperature-salinity diagram
● T-S Diagram (Plot)
● Deep Water Masses
have distinct characters
● Optimal Multiparameter Analaysis (OMA)
● An example (Talley, p183-185)
● Thermohaline Circulation
● Heating at low latitudes
● Cooling at high latitudes
● Water mass formation by deep convection
● Halocline
● Track of Antarctic Bottom Water and North Atlantic Deep Water
● Sources of Antarctic Bottom Water
Sinking around Antarctica
● Weddell Sea
● Other Sources of the Bottom Water
● Antarctic Bottom Water
● Passages of AABW
● The effect of bottom topography on AABW

نوع زبان: انگلیسی حجم: 10.2 مگا بایت
نوع فایل: اسلاید پاورپوینت تعداد اسلایدها: 37 صفحه
سطح مطلب: نامشخص پسوند فایل: ppt
گروه موضوعی: زمان استخراج مطلب: 2019/06/15 11:03:18

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عبارات مهم استفاده شده در این مطلب

عبارات مهم استفاده شده در این مطلب

water, ., mass, ocean, diagram, t, mix, temperature, deep, salinity, identify, property,

توجه: این مطلب در تاریخ 2019/06/15 11:03:18 به صورت خودکار از فضای وب آشکار توسط موتور جستجوی پاورپوینت جمع آوری شده است و در صورت اعلام عدم رضایت تهیه کننده ی آن، طبق قوانین سایت از روی وب گاه حذف خواهد شد. این مطلب از وب سایت زیر استخراج شده است و مسئولیت انتشار آن با منبع اصلی است.

ftp://wxmaps.org/pub/huangb/Fall12/Lecture19.ppt

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عبارات پرتکرار و مهم در این اسلاید عبارتند از: water, ., mass, ocean, diagram, t, mix, temperature, deep, salinity, identify, property,

مشاهده محتوای متنیِ این اسلاید ppt

مشاهده محتوای متنیِ این اسلاید ppt

overturning circulation  water mass in deep ocean  deep water formation and property antarctic bottom water north atlantic deep water  abyssal circulation stommel arons model  meridional overturning circulation reading materials pickard and emery chapter ۷ pond and pickard chapter ۱ talley pickard emery and swift chapter ۱۴ evolution of physical oceanography p۶ ۶۹ warren deep circulation of the world ocean p۶ ۴۱ . worthington water mass of the world ocean p۴۲ ۶۹ . pedlosky ocean circulation theory p۳۷۹ ۴ ۵ upper and deep ocean ۱ . the base of thermocline at a depth of roughly ۱ km represents the lower boundary of the domain of the vigorous ocean circulation driven by the wind stress and large scale distribution of heating and cooling ~upper ocean ۲ . below this region lies a vast volume of water from ۱~۲ to ۴~۵ km ~deep or abyssal ocean ۳ . the deep ocean is cold everywhere t ۴oc almost everywhere below ۲km t typically falls within ۲oc at ۴km in contrast to widespread area of sst of the order of ۲ oc why is the deep ocean filled with cold water no major heat source or sink within deep ocean most water properties are set at sea surface waters of such low temperatures can only be originated with surface waters at both polar regions estimated filling rate ۱ ۲ sv the presence at lower latitudes of such waters implies water movement in deep ocean water properties are helpful for identifying flow path . water masses and water types water mass can be defined as a body of water with a common formation history through an identifiable process water mass can be identified by plotting temperature against salinity in a t s diagram points in the property space e.g. t s diagram are called water types a source water type is the water type at the source of the water mass define the water mass how to track the water masses from temperature salinity diagram below the surface layer in permanent contact with the atmosphere temperature and salinity are quasi conservative properties i.e. they can only be changed by mixing and advection. all other properties of sea water such as oxygen nutrients etc. are affected by biological and chemical processes and therefore non conservative. water masses can therefore be identified by their temperature salinity t s combinations. each water mass is introduced in terms of its identifying characteristics the ocean process that creates the specific characteristics once identified additional information is used to refine the water mass definition e.g. density range example mediterranean water mw salinity maximum layer in north atlantic mid depth ۱ ۲ m saline outflow through strait of gibralter density range is a function of the source water and mixing with ambient north atlantic water subtropical mode water stmw thickness vertical homogeneity originates in a thick surface winter mixed layer advected down along isopycnals into the ocean interior examples of temperature salinity ts diagrams. the diagrams on the left show the distribution of temperature red and salinity cyan with depth the diagrams on the right show the corresponding ts diagrams. top layering of a warm and saline water mass found at ۳ m depth above a cold and fresh water mass found at ۳ ۶ m. the full lines show the situation before mixing the broken lines after mixing. the ts diagram shows the two water masses as ts points. before mixing only the two points are seen in the ts diagram. mixing connects the two ts points by a straight line. bottom layering of three water masses intrusion of a low salinity water mass at ۳ ۶ m depth . again the full lines show the situation before mixing the broken lines after mixing. the ts diagram shows two mixing lines the erosion of the intermediate salinity minimum by mixing is seen by the departure of the broken curve from the original water mass point. t s diagram plot first introduced by helland hansen ۱۹۱۶ for individual oceanographic stations potential temperature is always used now to remove the adiabatic effect of pressure on temperature each point on a θ s diagram corresponds to a particular potential density often contoured on the diagram water types are points representing source water on the diagram as water advects away from its source and mixes with waters from other sources its identifying properties spread to a range the overall envelope of the gradually mixing properties identifies the water mass fractional mixing rates of the source waters can be calculated for a given parcel a good assumption for conservative tracers is that mixing along straight lines figure ۶.۱۴ identify water masses from t s diagram one of the oldest methods of classification is the temperature salinity diagram or t s diagram . in any given area a plot of temperature versus salinity data from near the surface to the bottom has distinctive and reproducible characteristics excluding the top ۱ m where seasonal temperature changes dominate . all data from a given region of the ocean can be expected to fall within a certain envelope with greater variation near surface than at depth. inspection of the shape of the curve allows one to distinguish between water masses. figure ۶.۱۵ taking into account of the whole set of ocean properties and information about water mass it is useful to think of the vertical structure in terms of four layers upper intermediate deep and bottom upper surface mixed layer thermocline halocline pycnocline etc. in contact with the atmosphere directly or through broad flow e.g. through subduction process . the other layers are all below pycnocline identified by water masses that indicate surface origins with respect to location and formation processes. figure ۴.۱۷ letter in a subantarctica north pacific and eastern south paicifc south pacific and subtropical north pacific south atlantic south pacific and indian ocean south atlantic and indian ocean western north atlantic red sea …

کلمات کلیدی پرکاربرد در این اسلاید پاورپوینت: water, ., mass, ocean, diagram, t, mix, temperature, deep, salinity, identify, property,

این فایل پاورپوینت شامل 37 اسلاید و به زبان انگلیسی و حجم آن 10.2 مگا بایت است. نوع قالب فایل ppt بوده که با این لینک قابل دانلود است. این مطلب برگرفته از سایت زیر است و مسئولیت انتشار آن با منبع اصلی می باشد که در تاریخ 2019/06/15 11:03:18 استخراج شده است.

ftp://wxmaps.org/pub/huangb/Fall12/Lecture19.ppt

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