Signal Attenuation & Insertion Loss

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● Lecture: 8 Physical Layer Impairments in Optical Networks
● Outline
● Physical Layer Impairments
● Physical Layer Impairment Awareness
● PLIs Dependence
● Maximum Transparency Length
● PLIs Classification
● PLIs Classification: Non-linear
● Outline
● Signal Attenuation & Insertion Loss
● Amplified Spontaneous Emission (ASE)
● Optical Signal to Noise Ratio (OSNR)
● Chromatic Dispersion
● Group Velocity Dispersion
● Effects of Dispersion and Attenuation
● Polarizations of Fundamental Mode
● Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD)
● Crosstalk
● Outline
● Kerr Effect
● Self and Cross Phase Modulation (SPM & XPM )
● Four Wave Mixing (FWM)
● Digital Processing for Impairments Compensation
● Receive Processing
● Outline
● Eye Diagram
● Eye Diagram in the Presence of Signal Degradation
● Bit Error Rate (BER) and Q-factor
● Q-factor and BER
● Outline
● PLI-RWA Proposals
● Approach 1
● Approach 2
● Approach 3

نوع زبان: انگلیسی حجم: 3.41 مگا بایت
نوع فایل: اسلاید پاورپوینت تعداد اسلایدها: 35 صفحه
سطح مطلب: نامشخص پسوند فایل: ppt
گروه موضوعی: زمان استخراج مطلب: 2019/06/15 10:57:54

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عبارات مهم استفاده شده در این مطلب

عبارات مهم استفاده شده در این مطلب

signal, optical, linear, fibre, impairment, wavelength, ., power, dispersion, non, l, loss,

توجه: این مطلب در تاریخ 2019/06/15 10:57:54 به صورت خودکار از فضای وب آشکار توسط موتور جستجوی پاورپوینت جمع آوری شده است و در صورت اعلام عدم رضایت تهیه کننده ی آن، طبق قوانین سایت از روی وب گاه حذف خواهد شد. این مطلب از وب سایت زیر استخراج شده است و مسئولیت انتشار آن با منبع اصلی است.

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عبارات پرتکرار و مهم در این اسلاید عبارتند از: signal, optical, linear, fibre, impairment, wavelength, ., power, dispersion, non, l, loss,

مشاهده محتوای متنیِ این اسلاید ppt

مشاهده محتوای متنیِ این اسلاید ppt

lecture ۸ physical layer impairments in optical networks ajmal muhammad robert forchheimer information coding group isy department outline introduction to physical layer impairments plis plis classification linear and non linear signal quality estimation plis aware routing and wavelength assignment physical layer impairments optical signals traverse the optical fibre links passive and or active optical components signals encounter many impairments that affect their intensity level as well as their temporal spectral and polarization properties if the received signal quality is not within the receiver sensitivity threshold the receiver may not be able to correctly detect the optical signal physical layer impairment awareness important for network designers and operators to know various important physical layer impairments plis their effects on lightpath connection feasibility pli analytical modeling monitoring and mitigation techniques techniques to communicate pli information to network layer and control plane protocols how to use all these techniques to dynamically set up and manage optically feasible lightpaths plis dependence plis and their significance depend on network type reach type of network applications network type opaque signal undergoes oeo conversion at all intermediate nodes along its path translucent undergoes oeo at some intermediate nodes transparent lightpaths are switched completely in the optical domain reach access metro or core long haul network type of applications real time non real time mission critical etc maximum transparency length the maximum distance an optical signal can travel and be detected by a receiver without requiring oeo conversion the maximum transparency length of an optical path depends on the optical signal power the fibre distance type of fibre and design of links e.g. dispersion compensation the number of wavelengths on a single fibre the bit rate per wavelength the amplification mechanism and the number of amplifiers the number and type of switching elements through which the signals pass before reaching the egress node or before regeneration plis classification plis are broadly classified into two categories linear and non linear optical systems that operate below a certain input power threshold exhibit a linear relationship between the input and output signal power the loss and refractive index n of the fibre are independent of the signal power i.e. static in nature important linear impairment are fibre attenuation component insertion loss amplifier spontaneous emission ase noise chromatic dispersion cd or group velocity dispersion gvd polarization mode dispersion pmd crosstalk and filter concatenation fc plis classification non linear non linear impairments refer to phenomena that only occur when the signal energy propagating in a medium attains sufficiently high intensities this can be due to high launch power and or the confinement of energy in extremely small areas i.e. fibre core non linear impairments induce phase variation and introduce noise into the optical signal important non linear impairments are self phase modulation spm cross phase modulation xpm four wave mixing fwm outline introduction to physical layer impairments plis plis classification linear and non linear signal quality estimation plis aware routing and wavelength assignment signal attenuation insertion loss signal attenuation refers to the loss of power of a signal propagating through optical fibre as distance increases causes material absorption rayleigh scattering material absorption impurities within fibre absorb propagating signal power often convert the energy into heat rayleigh scattering photons can interact with the atoms in the fibre causing energy to be scattering in all directions if a scattered photon does not propagate in the same direction as the original signal then signal attenuation or loss occur insertion loss loss of signal power resulting from the insertion of a device in an optical fibre and is usually expressed in decibels db amplified spontaneous emission ase amplifiers are used to overcome fibre losses optical noise is added by each amplifier spontaneously emitted photons have random characteristics and manifest in the amplified signal as noise ase noise within the signal bandwidth cannot be removed and is subject to gain from any other amplifier downstream in the optical link optical signal to noise ratio osnr power in optical signal divided by the power in .۱ nm of the noise spectrum expressed in db for amplifiers and a line system delivering a high onsr is good for a receiver tolerating a low osnr is good km db chromatic dispersion material dispersion since refractive index n is a function of wavelength different wavelengths travel at slightly different velocities. waveguide dispersion signal in the cladding travels with a different velocity than the signal in the core. this phenomenon is significant in single mode conditions. group velocity chromatic dispersion material disp. waveguide disp. group velocity dispersion t t spread ² t t l spectrum ² l l ۱ l ۲ l o intensity intensity intensity cladding core emitter very short light pulse v g l ۲ v g l ۱ input output all excitation sources are inherently non monochromatic and emit within a spectrum ² l of wavelengths. waves in the guide with different free space wavelengths travel at different group velocities due to the wavelength dependence of n ۱ . the waves arrive at the end of the fiber at different times and hence result in a broadened output pulse. ۱۹۹۹ s.o. kasap optoelectronics prentice hall effects of dispersion and attenuation ۷ polarizations of fundamental mode two polarization states exist in the fundamental mode in a single mode fiber polarization mode dispersion pmd each polarization state has a different velocity  pmd ۸ crosstalk optical switches are prone to signal leakage giving rise to crosstalk inter channel crosstalk occurs between signals on adjacent channels. can be eliminated by using narrow pass band receivers. intra channel crosstalk occurs among signals on the same wavelengths or signals whose wavelengths fall within each other’s receiver pass band. outline introduction to physical layer impairments plis plis classification linear and non linear signal quality estimation plis aware routing and wavelength assignment kerr effect the refractive index n c v of optical fibre dependent on the optical signal intensity i n n n۲i n n۲ p aeff where p is optical signal power aeff is the effective …

کلمات کلیدی پرکاربرد در این اسلاید پاورپوینت: signal, optical, linear, fibre, impairment, wavelength, ., power, dispersion, non, l, loss,

این فایل پاورپوینت شامل 35 اسلاید و به زبان انگلیسی و حجم آن 3.41 مگا بایت است. نوع قالب فایل ppt بوده که با این لینک قابل دانلود است. این مطلب برگرفته از سایت زیر است و مسئولیت انتشار آن با منبع اصلی می باشد که در تاریخ 2019/06/15 10:57:54 استخراج شده است.

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