Calculation of Grades

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فهرست عناوین اصلی در این پاورپوینت

● Introduction
● Rationale and Purposes of Grading Systems
● Categories of Reporting Progress and Achievement
● Specific Types of Grading Systems
● Calculation of Grades
● Reporting Progress to Parents

نوع زبان: انگلیسی حجم: 0.16 مگا بایت
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گروه موضوعی: زمان استخراج مطلب: 2019/06/16 05:52:36

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., grade, system, student, type, report, performance, –, progress, purpose, point, category,

توجه: این مطلب در تاریخ 2019/06/16 05:52:36 به صورت خودکار از فضای وب آشکار توسط موتور جستجوی پاورپوینت جمع آوری شده است و در صورت اعلام عدم رضایت تهیه کننده ی آن، طبق قوانین سایت از روی وب گاه حذف خواهد شد. این مطلب از وب سایت زیر استخراج شده است و مسئولیت انتشار آن با منبع اصلی است.

http://documents.routledge-interactive.s3.amazonaws.com/9781884585494/chapter10.ppt

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عبارات پرتکرار و مهم در این اسلاید عبارتند از: ., grade, system, student, type, report, performance, –, progress, purpose, point, category,

مشاهده محتوای متنیِ این اسلاید ppt

مشاهده محتوای متنیِ این اسلاید ppt

classroom assessment a practical guide for educators by craig a. mertler chapter ۱ grading systems ۱.bin introduction grading is the primary means by which the results of assessments are summarized and communicated. it is seen as the culminating activity following the instructional process grading should not be an afterthought it should be treated as an integral part of the instructional process. planning  instruction  assessment  grading evaluation rationale and purposes of grading systems grading the process of using a formal system for purposes of summarizing and reporting student achievement and progress. very important professional responsibility of teachers especially due to important consequences . grades can be assigned to individual measurements e.g. a test or paper or to assessments groups of measurements—typically at end of grading period or school year . essentially involves comparison of performance to standards or criteria. rationale and purposes of grading systems grading continued primary reason for grading is that school districts require summative judgments about students. highly reliant on teachers’ judgments. should be based on accumulation of valid and reliable evidence. main purpose of grades is to communicate information about student’s achievement and progress. can serve as source of motivation typically for already high achieving students . rationale and purposes of grading systems grading continued important necessary criteria for grading systems must be fair. must be accurate. should be based on sufficient amount of valid data. therefore should be defensible. not a good practice to grade everything. grading for formative purposes versus grading for summative purposes. rationale and purposes of grading systems grading continued types of work to be included in summative grades. results of formal assessments written tests large projects . quizzes homework seatwork nonacademic factors e.g. attendance effort attitude participation etc. perhaps as basis for raising borderline grades. summative grades should be based on academic achievement. categories of reporting progress and achievement categories of reporting systems categories are based on types of comparisons of performance to performance of other students to predefined standards of performance to student’s own ability level or to student’s prior performance. first two types of comparisons are most common in regular classrooms. categories of reporting progress and achievement categories of reporting systems continued norm referenced comparisons grades are assigned based on comparison of performance to that of other students in a class. sometimes referred to as relative grading curving the class and grading on the curve. basis of comparison is performance of all other students. not all students can receive the highest possible grades. categories of reporting progress and achievement norm referenced comparisons continued designed to ensure that grades that span all possible categories will be received. distribution of grades is predetermined. no absolute system exists teachers construct their own distributions by knowing their students subject areas and beliefs about grades. tend to create highly competitive classrooms. students’ success depends on their ability but possibly more so on performance of others. meaning of letter grades is not always clear. categories of reporting progress and achievement criterion referenced comparisons student performance is compared to a preestablished set of performance standards. more fair since sole basis is individual student’s performance. used by most classroom teachers. possible for all students to earn top grade. two types of performance standards performance based criteria—similar to scoring rubric. percentage based criteria—based on total points. specific types of grading systems types of grading systems letter grading system oldest and most commonly used system. a–b–c–d–f or others . can summarize entire term’s work with a single grade an advantage as well as a limitation . potential for imprecision—e.g. high a versus low a. can be remedied with – system. specific types of grading systems types of grading systems continued numerical or percentage grades instead of converting points to letter grades simply report total number or percentage of points earned. both points percentages and letter grades can be reported in a multigrade system. no feedback on areas of weakness only provide overall indication of achievement. specific types of grading systems types of grading systems continued pass fail grades often used for college courses outside chosen field of study. not included in grade point average. may be recommended in k–۱۲ for students with learning disabilities. advantage is the reduction in anxiety. only two categories provide little formative feedback. specific types of grading systems types of grading systems continued checklists variation of pass fail system represents a type of dichotomous grading. primary goal is to provide detailed analysis of strengths and weaknesses. since all factors are assessed separately nonachievement factors e.g. effort and participation can be included. specific types of grading systems types of grading systems continued portfolios purpose is to facilitate progress document growth and showcase student work. can be used summatively or formatively. narrative reports typically used in early years. provide thorough description of strengths and weaknesses. may be used quite effectively as a supplement to letter grades. calculation of grades methods of calculating grades most common method is total point approach. each assessment is allotted points which are added up and the sum divided by the total number of possible points. variation is the calculation of percentages with relative weights. important issue related to calculation of grades is measurement error which can affect a student’s observed score observed score true score ± error score calculation of grades methods of calculating grades continued measurement error can cause grade to be higher or lower than actual evaluation. the importance of this concept and its relation to calculating grades especially in borderline cases. for example a student who earns ۸۹.۵ when the cutoff point for an a is ۹ . grades are typically maintained by teacher in a gradebook. reporting progress to parents methods of reporting progress most common method is through use of report cards. typically only provide overall indication of performance not very useful in providing in depth feedback. letters to parents provide a permanent record of a teacher’s communication with parents. parent teacher conferences permit face to face dialogue communication is a two way process no longer unidirectional as with report cards or letters to parents . can be used to effectively supplement information provided on report card. time consuming scheduling can be difficult. …

کلمات کلیدی پرکاربرد در این اسلاید پاورپوینت: ., grade, system, student, type, report, performance, –, progress, purpose, point, category,

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