Unconditioned vs. conditioned

فهرست عناوین اصلی در این پاورپوینت

فهرست عناوین اصلی در این پاورپوینت

● Integrative and Intellectual Functions of the Brain
● Learning
● Conditioned reflex
● Unconditioned vs. conditioned
● Characteristics
● Classification
● Characteristics & Features
● Rules for conditioned reflexes
● The orientation reflex
● Rules for conditioned reflexes
● Mechanism of conditioned reflex
● PAVLOV’S CONCEPT:
● Biological importance of conditioned reflexes:
● Inhibition of higher nervous activity
● Temporary inhibition
● Extinction
● Differential inhibition
● Inhibition of delay
● Type of nervous system
● Nerve processes are characterized through:
● Types of nervous system
● This figure is an application of the four types:
● Human’s types of nervous system
● Emotions
● Aspects of emotions
● Nerve control of emotions
● Behavioral program
● THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION!

نوع زبان: انگلیسی حجم: 1.72 مگا بایت
نوع فایل: اسلاید پاورپوینت تعداد اسلایدها: 37 صفحه
سطح مطلب: نامشخص پسوند فایل: ppt
گروه موضوعی: زمان استخراج مطلب: 2019/05/16 06:20:25

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عبارات مهم استفاده شده در این مطلب

عبارات مهم استفاده شده در این مطلب

., reflex, stimulus, condition, conditioned, unconditioned, activity, inhibition, nervous, base, temporary, cortical,

توجه: این مطلب در تاریخ 2019/05/16 06:20:25 به صورت خودکار از فضای وب آشکار توسط موتور جستجوی پاورپوینت جمع آوری شده است و در صورت اعلام عدم رضایت تهیه کننده ی آن، طبق قوانین سایت از روی وب گاه حذف خواهد شد. این مطلب از وب سایت زیر استخراج شده است و مسئولیت انتشار آن با منبع اصلی است.

http://www.pitt.edu/~super7/54011-55001/54171.ppt

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عبارات پرتکرار و مهم در این اسلاید عبارتند از: ., reflex, stimulus, condition, conditioned, unconditioned, activity, inhibition, nervous, base, temporary, cortical,

مشاهده محتوای متنیِ این اسلاید ppt

مشاهده محتوای متنیِ این اسلاید ppt

integrative and intellectual functions of the brain higher nervous activity lecture is prepared by ekaterina eliseeva ass. prof. of the normal physiology department stavropol state medical university ۲ ۱۵ learning is the most characteristic ability of humans and higher animals. this process make an individual possible to change his behavior according current needs and environment changes. learning and memory are the functions of nervous system based on conditioned and unconditioned reflexes. conditioned reflex is a reflex response to a stimulus which does not elicit the response itself but acquires after repeated application with another specific stimulation that normally evokes such a response. conditioning training unconditioned vs. conditioned inborn inherited stable constant activity of low nerve centers adequate stimulation only specific for species based on the certain reflex arch give certain adaptation acquired during life may be established or abolished activity of cortical higher centers any stimulus may be conditioned individual based on temporary connection of neurons give better adaptation characteristics variability which is the most characteristic feature of a conditioned reflex ensures the body’s adjustment to the external environment. a conditioned signal that gives incorrect information on the external environment ceases to be a stimulus for responsive behaviour and the reaction to such a signal disappears. this phenomenon is based on internal inhibition which causes a sensitive discrimination among stimuli according to their physiological and biological properties and which helps the body dispense with conditioned reflexes that are no longer biologically useful. characteristics the conditioned reflex warns person about approach of the subsequent kinds of activity and prepares them for future kinds of activity eating avoidance of danger and another . with the help of the conditioned reflex mechanism such function of nervous system as purposeful behaviour of the person in an environment and society the adaptation to varied conditions of an environment are carried out. such activity of nervous system concerns to the higher nervous activity. classification i. according to biological importance nutritional defensive sexual homeostatic etc. ii. according to reflex reactions motor visceral cardiac secretary etc. classification iii. according to base reflexes first order reflex second order reflex high order reflex iv. according to time periods classic traced reflex for time classification v. according to receptors exteroreceptive interoreceptive proprioreceptive vi. according to basal methodic natural instrumental artificial characteristics features depending on the stimulus causing the reflex conditioned reflexes are classified as either natural or artificial. natural conditioned reflexes are evoked by the inherent properties of an unconditional reinforcement that have biological significance for an animal for example the sight and smell of food. artificial conditioned reflexes are evoked by stimuli that are initially unconnected to a reinforcement for example a bell a light or the sound of a metronome. rules for conditioned reflexes combination of two stimuli conditioned stimulus must be the first in order and unconditioned stimulus must follow it. conditional stimulus is at first relatively neutral indifferent and evokes orientation reflex. the goal is to suppress this reaction by applying the conditioned stimulation several times. the special reflex laboratory by i.v.pavlov the orientation reflex has a special place among unconditioned reflexes. it is a reflex response to novelty elicited by any sufficiently quick change in the external environment and is outwardly expressed in alertness listening for new sounds sniffing turning the eyes and head and sometimes the whole body toward a stimulus etc. this reflex facilitates best perception of an acting agent and has great adaptive significance. as pavlov figuratively described it the orientation reaction is a what is it reflex. rules for conditioned reflexes both stimuli must be more intensive than threshold. intensity of unconditioned stimulus must be more than intensity of conditioned one. for example conditional nutritional reflex may be established if the dog is hungry. ringing at first neutral signal which then becomes conditional one is followed by some food in a few second strong unconditional reinforce . repetitive combination of both signals provokes formation of conditional nutritional reflex secretion of saliva. this means that now ringing provokes secretion of saliva without any food. rules for conditioned reflexes combination of conditioned and unconditioned stimuli must be repetitive. formation of temporary connections requires normal active state of central nervous system. mechanism of conditioned reflex conditioned reflexes as a rule reproduce the structure of an unconditioned reflex since the conditioned stimulus excites the same nerve centers as the unconditioned one. therefore the components of the conditioned reflex are similar to those of the unconditioned reaction. they include primary components specific for the type of reflex and secondary unspecific components. in the defensive reflex the leading role is played by i he motor component in the nutritional reflex by the motor and secretory components. pavlov s concept conditional reflexes are built on the basis of unconditional ones. the building of a conditional reflex is based on the formation of temporary connections between two cortical centers a perceiving the conditional stimulus and b perceiving the unconditional one. important role in the mechanism of interaction between different cortical regions play a cortico subcortico cortical pathways and b the dominant phenomenon. when conditioned and unconditioned stimuli are combined the excitation is summated. nervous cells of both cortical regions are involved in a rhythmic activity. circulation of impulses along the same neuronal chains ensures the formation of temporary connections. functional changes are important only for brief impression of traces of stimuli on the cortex short term memory . long retention of temporary connections long term memory is based on some molecular plastic changes taking place in the synapses and neurons. biological importance of conditioned reflexes reflex reactions appear a certain time before actual unconditioned stimulation thus preparing the organism. conditioned reflexes help to find food to avoid danger in proper time to eliminate harmful influences etc they are base for habits. reflexes may be applied in clinical and psychological practice. inhibition of higher nervous activity external inhibition – conditioned reflex is weakened or suppressed by simultaneous excitatory process temporary permanent internal inhibition – inhibitory effects in the cortical center of conditioned reflex extinction differential inhibition conditioned inhibition inhibition of delay temporary inhibition inhibitory effect arises in a new cortical center not in centers …

کلمات کلیدی پرکاربرد در این اسلاید پاورپوینت: ., reflex, stimulus, condition, conditioned, unconditioned, activity, inhibition, nervous, base, temporary, cortical,

این فایل پاورپوینت شامل 37 اسلاید و به زبان انگلیسی و حجم آن 1.72 مگا بایت است. نوع قالب فایل ppt بوده که با این لینک قابل دانلود است. این مطلب برگرفته از سایت زیر است و مسئولیت انتشار آن با منبع اصلی می باشد که در تاریخ 2019/05/16 06:20:25 استخراج شده است.

http://www.pitt.edu/~super7/54011-55001/54171.ppt

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