Part 1 – Sensory Receptors and Sensation

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● Why This Matters
● The Peripheral Nervous System
● Figure 13.1 Place of the PNS in the structural organization of the nervous system.
● Part 1 – Sensory Receptors and Sensation
● Classification by Stimulus Type
● Classification by Stimulus Type (cont.)
● Classification by Location
● Classification by Location (cont.)
● Classification by Receptor Structure
● Classification by Receptor Structure (cont.)
● Table 13.1-1 General Sensory Receptors Classified by Structure and Function
● Classification by Receptor Structure (cont.)
● Table 13.1-2 General Sensory Receptors Classified by Structure and Function (continued)
● 13.2 Sensory Processing
● General Organization of the Somatosensory System
● General Organization of the Somatosensory System (cont.)
● Figure 13.2 Three basic levels of neural integration in sensory systems.
● General Organization of the Somatosensory System (cont.)
● Perception of Pain
● Perception of Pain (cont.)
● Figure 13.3 Map of referred pain.
● Clinical – Homeostatic Imbalance 13.1
● Part 2 – Transmission Lines: Nerves and Their Structure and Repair
● Structure and Classification (cont.)
● Figure 13.4a Structure of a nerve.
● Figure 13.4b Structure of a nerve.
● Structure and Classification (cont.)
● Regeneration of Nerve Fibers
● Regeneration of Nerve Fibers (cont.)
● Figure 13.5-1 Regeneration of a nerve fiber in a peripheral nerve.
● Figure 13.5-2 Regeneration of a nerve fiber in a peripheral nerve.
● Figure 13.5-3 Regeneration of a nerve fiber in a peripheral nerve.
● Figure 13.5-4 Regeneration of a nerve fiber in a peripheral nerve.

نوع زبان: انگلیسی حجم: 1.76 مگا بایت
نوع فایل: اسلاید پاورپوینت تعداد اسلایدها: 48 صفحه
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گروه موضوعی: زمان استخراج مطلب: 2019/05/16 04:43:27

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receptor, ۱۶, inc., pearson, education, ., sensory, cont, system, classification, ending, nerve,

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۲ ۱۶ pearson education inc. powerpoint® lecture slides prepared by karen dunbar kareiva ivy tech community college annie leibovitz contact press images chapter ۱۳ part a peripheral nervous system why this matters understanding the peripheral nervous system help you to recognize and treat nerve damage ۲ ۱۶ pearson education inc. the peripheral nervous system pns provides links from and to world outside our body consists of all neural structures outside brain and spinal cord that can be broken down into four parts part ۱ – sensory receptors part ۲ – transmission lines nerves and their structure and repair part ۳ – motor endings and motor activity part ۴ – reflex activity ۲ ۱۶ pearson education inc. figure ۱۳.۱ place of the pns in the structural organization of the nervous system. ۲ ۱۶ pearson education inc. central nervous system cns peripheral nervous system pns sensory afferent division motor efferent division somatic nervous system autonomic nervous system ans sympathetic division parasympathetic division ۱۳.۱ sensory receptors part ۱ – sensory receptors and sensation sensory receptors specialized to respond to changes in environment stimuli activation results in graded potentials that trigger nerve impulses awareness of stimulus sensation and interpretation of meaning of stimulus perception occur in brain three ways to classify receptors by type of stimulus body location and structural complexity ۲ ۱۶ pearson education inc. classification by stimulus type mechanoreceptors—respond to touch pressure vibration and stretch thermoreceptors—sensitive to changes in temperature photoreceptors—respond to light energy example retina chemoreceptors—respond to chemicals examples smell taste changes in blood chemistry ۲ ۱۶ pearson education inc. ۶ classification by stimulus type cont. nociceptors—sensitive to pain causing stimuli examples extreme heat or cold excessive pressure inflammatory chemicals ۲ ۱۶ pearson education inc. ۷ classification by location exteroceptors respond to stimuli arising outside body receptors in skin for touch pressure pain and temperature most special sense organs ۲ ۱۶ pearson education inc. ۸ classification by location cont. interoceptors visceroceptors respond to stimuli arising in internal viscera and blood vessels sensitive to chemical changes tissue stretch and temperature changes sometimes cause discomfort but usually person is unaware of their workings ۲ ۱۶ pearson education inc. ۹ classification by location cont. proprioceptors respond to stretch in skeletal muscles tendons joints ligaments and connective tissue coverings of bones and muscles inform brain of one s movements ۲ ۱۶ pearson education inc. ۱ classification by receptor structure majority of sensory receptors belong to one of two categories simple receptors of the general senses modified dendritic endings of sensory neurons are found throughout body and monitor most types of general sensory information receptors for special senses vision hearing equilibrium smell and taste all are housed in complex sense organs covered in chapter ۱۵ ۲ ۱۶ pearson education inc. ۱۱ classification by receptor structure cont. simple receptors of the general senses general senses include tactile sensations touch pressure stretch vibration temperature pain and muscle sense no one receptor one function relationship receptors can respond to multiple stimuli receptors have either nonencapsulated free nerve endings or encapsulated nerve endings ۲ ۱۶ pearson education inc. ۱۲ classification by receptor structure cont. nonencapsulated free nerve endings abundant in epithelia and connective tissues most are nonmyelinated small diameter group c fibers distal terminals have knoblike swellings respond mostly to temperature pain or light touch ۲ ۱۶ pearson education inc. ۱۳ classification by receptor structure cont. nonencapsulated free nerve endings cont. thermoreceptors cold receptors are activated by temps from ۱ to ۴ c located in superficial dermis heat receptors are activated from ۳۲ to ۴۸c located in in deeper dermis outside those temperature ranges nociceptors are activated and interpreted as pain ۲ ۱۶ pearson education inc. classification by receptor structure cont. nonencapsulated free nerve endings cont. nociceptors pain receptors triggered by extreme temperature changes pinch or release of chemicals from damaged tissue vanilloid receptor protein in nerve membrane is main player acts as ion channel that is opened by heat low ph chemicals example capsaicin in red peppers itch receptors in dermis can be triggered by chemicals such as histamine ۲ ۱۶ pearson education inc. ۱۵ classification by receptor structure cont. nonencapsulated free nerve endings cont. tactile merkel discs function as light touch receptors located in deeper layers of epidermis hair follicle receptors free nerve endings that wrap around hair follicles act as light touch receptors that detect bending of hairs example allows you to feel a mosquito landing on your skin ۲ ۱۶ pearson education inc. ۱۶ table ۱۳.۱ ۱ general sensory receptors classified by structure and function ۲ ۱۶ pearson education inc. classification by receptor structure cont. encapsulated dendritic endings almost all are mechanoreceptors whose terminal endings are encased in connective tissue capsule vary greatly in shape and include tactile meissner’s corpuscles small receptors involved in discriminative touch found just below skin mostly in sensitive and hairless areas fingertips lamellar pacinian corpuscles large receptors respond to deep pressure and vibration when first applied then turn off located in deep dermis ۲ ۱۶ pearson education inc. ۱۸ classification by receptor structure cont. bulbous corpuscles ruffini endings respond to deep and continuous pressure located in dermis muscle spindles spindle shaped proprioceptors that respond to muscle stretch tendon organ proprioceptors located in tendons that detect stretch joint kinesthetic receptors proprioceptors that monitor joint position and motion ۲ ۱۶ pearson education inc. table ۱۳.۱ ۲ general sensory receptors classified by structure and function continued ۲ ۱۶ pearson education inc. ۱۳.۲ sensory processing survival depends upon sensation the awareness of changes in the internal and external environment perception the conscious interpretation of those stimuli ۲ ۱۶ pearson education inc. general organization of the somatosensory system somatosensory system part of sensory system serving body wall and limbs receives inputs from exteroceptors proprioceptors and interoceptors input is relayed toward head but processed along the way ۲ ۱۶ pearson education inc. ۲۲ general organization of the somatosensory system cont. levels of neural integration in sensory systems receptor level sensory receptors circuit level processing in ascending pathways perceptual level processing in cortical sensory areas ۲ ۱۶ pearson education inc. ۲۳ figure ۱۳.۲ three basic levels of neural integration in sensory systems. ۲ ۱۶ pearson education inc. perceptual level processing in cortical sensory centers motor cortex somatosensory cortex thalamus reticular formation pons medulla cerebellum spinal cord circuit level processing in ascending pathways free nerve endings pain cold warmth muscle spindle joint kinesthetic receptor ۳ ۲ ۱ receptor level sensory reception and transmission to cns general organization of the somatosensory system cont. processing at the receptor level generating a signal for sensation to occur the stimulus must excite a …

کلمات کلیدی پرکاربرد در این اسلاید پاورپوینت: receptor, ۱۶, inc., pearson, education, ., sensory, cont, system, classification, ending, nerve,

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