Language is complex

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● CAS LX 522
Syntax I
● Syntax
● Things we know
● Language is complex
● And yet people know this stuff…
● Speakers of English know…
● How do people know this?
● Notice also…
● Positive and negative evidence
● Conclusion: People have language
● So, how come we don’t all speak the same language?
● Word Order
● Word order—adverbs
● Parameters
● Our tasks
● The enterprise
● I-language
● Competence
● Prescriptive rules
● Judgments
● Syntax as science
● A simple introductory example
● Hypothesis: An anaphor must have an antecedent which agrees with it in gender.
● Hypothesis: An anaphor must agree in gender and number with its antecedent
● Person
● Hypothesis about anaphors
● Levels of adequacy
● Refresher on syntax
● Constituents
● Phrases
● Sentences
● Trees
● (Wait a minute, that’s not an X-bar structure!)
● Finding constituents
● Replacement test
● Sentence fragment test
● Movement tests—clefting
● Movement tests—preposing
● Coordination test
● When constituency tests fail
● Trees and constituency
● Phrases and constituents
● Trees and constituency
● Inside the NP
● Modifiers
● The actual structure…
● Trees
● Modifiers
● Trees
● Inside the VP
● What we’ve got…
● AdjP and AdvP
● What we’ve got now…
● 
● For next time:

نوع زبان: انگلیسی حجم: 0.15 مگا بایت
نوع فایل: اسلاید پاورپوینت تعداد اسلایدها: 85 صفحه
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گروه موضوعی: زمان استخراج مطلب: 2019/05/16 03:49:05

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., language, know, do, book, not, lift, english, pat, mary, knowledge, sentence,

توجه: این مطلب در تاریخ 2019/05/16 03:49:05 به صورت خودکار از فضای وب آشکار توسط موتور جستجوی پاورپوینت جمع آوری شده است و در صورت اعلام عدم رضایت تهیه کننده ی آن، طبق قوانین سایت از روی وب گاه حذف خواهد شد. این مطلب از وب سایت زیر استخراج شده است و مسئولیت انتشار آن با منبع اصلی است.

http://www.bu.edu/linguistics/UG/course/lx522-f01/handouts/lx522-1-intro.ppt

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عبارات پرتکرار و مهم در این اسلاید عبارتند از: ., language, know, do, book, not, lift, english, pat, mary, knowledge, sentence,

مشاهده محتوای متنیِ این اسلاید ppt

مشاهده محتوای متنیِ این اسلاید ppt

cas lx ۵۲۲ syntax i week ۱. introduction syntax the scientific study of how sentences are structured in human language. cf. semantics phonology phonetics pragmatics historical linguistics … things we know what we are studying is what we know about language. perhaps this sounds pointless… however there are things we know but don’t know we know. knowledge of language is largely unconscious knowledge and our task is to figure out what that knowledge is. things we know a native speaker of english knows right away which of the following sentences are english and which are not. pat the book lifted. pat lifted the book. lifted pat the book. pat book the lifted. things we know a native speaker of english knows right away which of the following sentences are english and which are not. pat the book lifted. pat lifted the book. lifted pat the book. pat book the lifted. things we know a native speaker of english knows right away which of the following sentences are english and which are not. pat the book lifted. pat lifted the book. lifted pat the book. pat book the lifted. lifted the indicates ungrammatical language is complex tony threw out the couch. tony threw the couch out.  prepositions can go on either side of the object. tony stormed out the door. tony stormed the door out. and yet people know this stuff… what did mary say john bought what did mary say that john bought ok that is optional. who did mary say bought coffee who did mary say that bought coffee speakers of english know… bill thinks mary is a genius. her mother thinks mary is a genius. she thinks mary is a genius. i asked mary to buy coffee. what did you ask mary to buy i saw the book about aliens on the table. what did you see the book about on the table how do people know this everyone native speaker of english knows this. no native speaker of english growing up you can’t question a subject in a complement embedded with that or you can’t use a proper name as an object if the subject is co referential. notice also… what people eventually end up with is a system with which they can produce and rate sentences. a grammar. even if you’ve never heard these before you know which one is english and which one isn’t eight very lazy elephants drank brandy. eight elephants very lazy brandy drank. positive and negative evidence adults know if a given sentence s is grammatical or ungrammatical. this is part of the knowledge kids gain through language acquisition. kids hear grammatical sentences positive evidence kids are not told which sentences are ungrammatical no negative evidence positive and negative evidence one of the striking things about child language is how few errors they actually make. for negative feedback to work the kids have to make the errors so that it can get the negative response . but they don’t make the errors. conclusion people have language a linguistic capacity is part of being human. like having two arms ten fingers a vision system humans have a language faculty. the language faculty tightly constrains what kinds of languages a child can learn. universal grammar ug . so how come we don’t all speak the same language languages differ. but in light of the learnability problem and from empirical observation they must differ only in limited ways. word order english french subject verb object svo john ate an apple. pierre a mangé une pomme. japanese korean subject object verb sov taroo wa ringo o tabeta. chelswu ka sakwa lul mekessta. irish arabic vso malagasy vos … word order—adverbs english adverbs before verbs mary quickly eats an apple. also mary ate an apple quickly mary eats quickly an apple. french adverbs after verbs geneviève mange rapidement une pomme. geneviève rapidement mange une pomme. parameters we can categorize languages in terms of their word order svo sov vso. this is a parameter by which languages differ. the dominant formal theory of first language acquisition holds that children have access to a set of parameters by which languages can differ acquisition is the process of setting those parameters. our tasks we’re trying to characterize knowledge of language. what are these things we know but don’t know we know we each have knowledge of this sort of our native language. the enterprise the data we will primarily be concerned with are native speaker intuitions. native speakers faced with a sentence s know whether the sentence s is part of their language or isn’t. these intuitions are highly systematic. we want to uncover the system which is unconscious knowledge behind the intuitions of native speakers—their knowledge of language. i language notice what we are studying is what one person knows. we are studying what the system is behind one person’s pattern of intuitions. of course speakers growing up in the same community have knowledge of language that is very similar but language is an individual thing. this is sometimes referred to as a person’s i language. a characterization of the i languages of a whole community of people is sometimes referred to as an e language. it is external it does not characterize any one person’s knowledge but is a generalization over many people’s i languages. for example parisian french. competence we are also concerned with what a person knows. what characterizes a person’s language competence. we are in general not concerned here with how a person ends up using this knowledge performance . you still have your language competence when you are sleeping in the absence of any performance. prescriptive rules another thing we need to be cautious of are prescriptive rules. often prescriptive rules of good grammar turn out to be impositions on our native grammar which don’t actually reflect our native competence. after all why did they need to be rules in the first place prescriptive rules prepositions are things you don’t end a sentence with. we want to successfully complete this course. remember capitalize the first word after a colon. don’t be so immodest as …

کلمات کلیدی پرکاربرد در این اسلاید پاورپوینت: ., language, know, do, book, not, lift, english, pat, mary, knowledge, sentence,

این فایل پاورپوینت شامل 85 اسلاید و به زبان انگلیسی و حجم آن 0.15 مگا بایت است. نوع قالب فایل ppt بوده که با این لینک قابل دانلود است. این مطلب برگرفته از سایت زیر است و مسئولیت انتشار آن با منبع اصلی می باشد که در تاریخ 2019/05/16 03:49:05 استخراج شده است.

http://www.bu.edu/linguistics/UG/course/lx522-f01/handouts/lx522-1-intro.ppt

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