Excitatory Pavlovian Conditioning

فهرست عناوین اصلی در این پاورپوینت

فهرست عناوین اصلی در این پاورپوینت

● Excitatory Pavlovian Conditioning
● Common Pavlovian Conditioning Procedures and Their Effectiveness
● Measuring Conditioned Responses
● Control Procedures
● Inhibitory Pavlovian Conditioning
● Procedures for Establishing Conditioned Inhibition
● Measurement of Conditioned Inhibition
● Compound-stimulus (Summation) test
● Retardation-of-acquisition test
● Traditional View of Classical Conditioning
● Modern View of Classical Conditioning
● Prevalence of Classical Conditioning

نوع زبان: انگلیسی حجم: 0.26 مگا بایت
نوع فایل: اسلاید پاورپوینت تعداد اسلایدها: 26 صفحه
سطح مطلب: نامشخص پسوند فایل: pptx
گروه موضوعی: زمان استخراج مطلب: 2019/05/17 07:52:58

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c, conditioning, ., procedure, trial, shock, type, pavlovian, signal, start, tone, behavior,

توجه: این مطلب در تاریخ 2019/05/17 07:52:58 به صورت خودکار از فضای وب آشکار توسط موتور جستجوی پاورپوینت جمع آوری شده است و در صورت اعلام عدم رضایت تهیه کننده ی آن، طبق قوانین سایت از روی وب گاه حذف خواهد شد. این مطلب از وب سایت زیر استخراج شده است و مسئولیت انتشار آن با منبع اصلی است.

https://sites.oxy.edu/clint/learn/ppt/06_classical_excitatory.pptx

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عبارات پرتکرار و مهم در این اسلاید عبارتند از: c, conditioning, ., procedure, trial, shock, type, pavlovian, signal, start, tone, behavior,

مشاهده محتوای متنیِ این اسلاید ppt

مشاهده محتوای متنیِ این اسلاید ppt

pavlov’s original experiment is an example of excitatory classical conditioning. dog salivates to us food and then to cs tone after cs us conditioning other common pavlovian excitatory procedures rats freeze to a us shock and then to a cs tone rabbit blinks to a us airpuff and then to a cs tone rats become nauseous to a us toxin and then to a cs taste pigeon approach and peck at us food and then to cs keylight two types of excitatory conditioning appetitive cs is followed by an appetitive us i.e. food water sex aversive cs is followed by an aversive us i.e. airpuff shock illness cs comes to predict the occurrence of the us and as a result the cs elicits responses crs that are related to the us excitatory pavlovian conditioning interstimulus interval isi interval between start of cs and start of us intertrial interval iti – interval between end of one conditioning trial and the start of the next trial short delayed cs proceeds us us starts before cs ends they overlap have a short isi most effective in many situations trace cs proceeds us us starts after cs ends they do not overlap usually with a short isi almost as effective as short delay common pavlovian conditioning procedures and their effectiveness ۳ figure ۳.۸ five common classical conditioning procedures long delayed conditioning cs proceeds us us starts before cs ends they overlap but with a long isi usually not effective and it can result in inhibition of delay simultaneous conditioning cs and us start and end at the same time isi is zero usually ineffective or a failure of performance rather than learning backward conditioning us proceeds cs may or may not overlap complex results and poorly understood may produce conditioned inhibition see below demonstrates that cs onset before us is not needed for associative learning cognitively cs predicts us onset in some situations but in others the cs may predict offset or absence of the us common pavlovian conditioning procedures and their effectiveness the early explanations of the role of cs us interval in conditioning have more recently been modified because of a complex set of findings. under some situations it is possible to get robust conditioning with any of the cs us procedures. for example fear conditioning that produces freezing behavior with a short delay and escape behavior with simultaneous procedure. trace conditioning temporal gap between cs and us cs offset as a predictor of us specialized brain circuits for holding information working memory temporal coding hypothesis learn the temporal cs – us pattern in addition to forming a cs us association for example timing of conditioned eyeblink see figure ۳.۹ common pavlovian conditioning procedures and their effectiveness the principles of learning and behavior ۷e by michael domjan copyright ۲ ۱۵ wadsworth publishing a division of cengage learning. all rights reserved. use a test trial cs without the us to compare the effectiveness of conditioning procedures behavior during the cs can be quantified in several ways magnitude number of drops of saliva value of a suppression ratio or preference ratio probability percent of cr occurring to the cs usually with eyeblink conditioning latency of the cr following cs onset measuring conditioned responses need to avoid pseudoconditioning – increased responding not due to a cs us association usually from the presentations of the us alone control group a comparison group to determine whether changes in behavior are due to conditioning procedures random control procedure – present cs and us at random intervals during the experiment which does not always prevent conditioning explicitly unpaired control – cs and us are presented far apart to prevent their association control procedures excitatory cs can become conditioned to signal the presence of a us when cs us inhibitory cs can become conditioned to signal the absence of a us when cs no us usually an aversive us common examples of signals that predict no aversive us no physical punishment including child abuse when abuser is not around no stress provoking events when taking a break no panic attacks where signals reduce the level of anxiety unpredicted anxiety attacks increase the level of anxiety predicted anxiety attacks there is warning decreases anxiety see figure ۳.۱ inhibitory pavlovian conditioning the principles of learning and behavior ۷e by michael domjan copyright ۲ ۱۵ wadsworth publishing a division of cengage learning. all rights reserved. a signal that predicts the absence of an aversive event like shock is a conditioned inhibitory stimulus cs some recent studies indicate that inhibitory conditioning may also occur with absence of appetitive us food . suppression of the cr conditioned inhibition teaches an animal to inhibit or hold back a cr inhibitory conditioning requires an excitatory context for the particular us being used i.e. prior experience with the us for absence to be significant the us has to periodically occur in the situation can not show relaxation unless there has been prior inhibitory pavlovian conditioning conditional standard cs procedure used by pavlov see figure ۳.۱۱ ۱. trial type a cs tone paired with us shock trials ۲. trial type b combination cs tone cs light not followed by us shock only get the us shock when the cs tone occurs never get the us shock when the cs light is present when the cs tone occurs in combination with the cs light no us shock is given switching back and forth between type a and type b trials the cs light gradually becomes a signal for the absence of the us shock so the cs can act as a safety signal procedures for establishing conditioned inhibition figure ۳.۱۱ pavlov’s procedure for conditioned inhibition. on some trials type a the cs is paired with the us. on other trials type b the cs is presented with the cs− and the us is omitted. type a and type b trials are presented repeatedly in random alternation. …

کلمات کلیدی پرکاربرد در این اسلاید پاورپوینت: c, conditioning, ., procedure, trial, shock, type, pavlovian, signal, start, tone, behavior,

این فایل پاورپوینت شامل 26 اسلاید و به زبان انگلیسی و حجم آن 0.26 مگا بایت است. نوع قالب فایل pptx بوده که با این لینک قابل دانلود است. این مطلب برگرفته از سایت زیر است و مسئولیت انتشار آن با منبع اصلی می باشد که در تاریخ 2019/05/17 07:52:58 استخراج شده است.

https://sites.oxy.edu/clint/learn/ppt/06_classical_excitatory.pptx

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