Factors in Snowpack Stability

فهرست عناوین اصلی در این پاورپوینت

فهرست عناوین اصلی در این پاورپوینت

● Avalanche Awareness
● Objectives
● Caveat
● Avalanche Resources
● Types of Avalanches
● Four Factors Leading to Snow Avalanches
● Dangerous Terrain Elements
● Analyzing Terrain
● Using compass to measure slope in the field
● Using compass to measure aspect in the field
● Vegetation Clues
● Weather
● Snowpack
● Factors in Snowpack Stability
● The Human Factor:
Most people trigger their own avalanche
● Putting it all together
● Avalanche Reports
● Red-Yellow-Green
● 3 Clues or More = Don’t Go
● “Nature’s Billboards”
● Assess this terrain and conditions!
● 8 people killed near here 2008 Why?
● Grim Statistics
● Personal/Group Safety
● Wearing a Transceiver
● Route Selection
● Crossing Questionable Slopes
(Minimize Exposure)
● Survival
● Transceivers
● Basic Rescue steps
● Caring for Victim
● Field Practice

نوع زبان: انگلیسی حجم: 4.76 مگا بایت
نوع فایل: اسلاید پاورپوینت تعداد اسلایدها: 35 صفحه
سطح مطلب: نامشخص پسوند فایل: ppt
گروه موضوعی: زمان استخراج مطلب: 2019/05/17 12:09:33

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عبارات مهم استفاده شده در این مطلب

عبارات مهم استفاده شده در این مطلب

b, c, m, o, ., avalanche, snow, terrain, aspect, weather, –, compass,

توجه: این مطلب در تاریخ 2019/05/17 12:09:33 به صورت خودکار از فضای وب آشکار توسط موتور جستجوی پاورپوینت جمع آوری شده است و در صورت اعلام عدم رضایت تهیه کننده ی آن، طبق قوانین سایت از روی وب گاه حذف خواهد شد. این مطلب از وب سایت زیر استخراج شده است و مسئولیت انتشار آن با منبع اصلی است.

https://s3.wp.wsu.edu/uploads/sites/96/2014/07/AvalancheAwareness.ppt

در صورتی که محتوای فایل ارائه شده با عنوان مطلب سازگار نبود یا مطلب مذکور خلاف قوانین کشور بود لطفا در بخش دیدگاه (در پایین صفحه) به ما اطلاع دهید تا بعد از بررسی در کوتاه ترین زمان نسبت به حدف با اصلاح آن اقدام نماییم. جهت جستجوی پاورپوینت های بیشتر بر روی اینجا کلیک کنید.

عبارات پرتکرار و مهم در این اسلاید عبارتند از: b, c, m, o, ., avalanche, snow, terrain, aspect, weather, –, compass,

مشاهده محتوای متنیِ این اسلاید ppt

مشاهده محتوای متنیِ این اسلاید ppt

b m o c avalanche awareness monica spicker ۲ ۱۲ many slides taken from various powerpoint files by mike laney posted at the national ski patrol website. some photographs copied from www.avalanche.org and from the usfs snow avalanches brochure b m o c b m o c objectives describe the four factors that create avalanche danger describe the basic conditions of each factor that create avalanche danger correctly use several field indicators and tests to identify and avoid hazards. correctly conduct self searches rescues. b m o c b m o c caveat the more you travel in avalanche terrain the higher the likelihood you will be caught in one. show clips take all the training you can get and stay up to date. aaa level ۱ or nsp level ۱ or similar is recommended. on line training http access.jibc.bc.ca avalanchefirstresponse index.htm at least read snow sense movie know before you go – available on youtube.com b m o c b m o c avalanche resources www.avalanche.org www.nwac.us www.nsp.org www.americanavalancheassociation.org b m o c b m o c types of avalanches loose snow avalanches start at one point on the snow cover and grow into the shape of an inverted v wet loose snow avalanches occur in spring and summer lubricated by meltwater and rain slab avalanches lee slopes heavy storms high winds ۲ to ۱۵ mph b m o c b m o c four factors leading to snow avalanches terrain weather snow pack humans avalanche triangle b m o c b m o c dangerous terrain elements angle ۳۵ – ۴۵ deg profile shape convex aspect n e leeward of wind length any terrain traps gullies chutes cornices runouts cliff bands. texture smooth after vegetation is covered b m o c b m o c analyzing terrain plan before you go contour maps show angle aspect shape vegetation patterns in the field pay attention to aspect and angle use your compass to measure look for past activity and other signs. learn to dig pits and do stability tests. b m o c using compass to measure slope in the field dial compass to west at the hinge. hold compass at same angle as the slope with the declination scale at the bottom. where the black swinging needle points is your slope angle in degrees. in this case ۲۷º b m o c b m o c using compass to measure aspect in the field face away from the hill back to the hill hold compass in front of you and rotate dial until red fred the needle in in the shed red outline arrow in base plate . reading at hinge is the aspect. in this case w sw b m o c b m o c b m o c vegetation clues flagging b m o c b m o c weather precipitation more than ۱ hr ۱۲ ۲۴hrs rain on snow temperature cold stays unstable longer wind stay away from leeward side past – current – forecast most avalanches within ۲۴ – ۴۸ hrs of storm most after midday understand monitor weather patterns b m o c b m o c snowpack each event shows in the snow pack as a layer. properties change over time metamorphism snowpits are used to measure and assess the stability of each layer. b m o c b m o c factors in snowpack stability depth and type of snow density how compact metamorphism progressive change in snow crystals bonding strength stress within snow pack. b m o c b m o c the human factor most people trigger their own avalanche attitude experience fitness equipment training. herding instinct rush for first tracks the rush home bad weather breeds conservatism sunny weather gives false confidence get your money’s worth. http www.backcountry.com images newsletter ۸ ۶.jpg b m o c b m o c putting it all together plan study maps and aerial photos to identify dangerous slopes aspects and traps. plan escape and alternate routes. monitor weather. get avalanche rating during trip regularly re assess conditions. change route and plan as needed. be ready to turn around or hunker down. b m o c b m o c avalanche reports www.avalanche.org local agencies b m o c b m o c b m o c b m o c red yellow green b m o c b m o c b m o c b m o c ۳ clues or more don’t go rating considerable or higher hazard on the current avalanche bulletin loading by snow wind or rain in the last ۴۸ hrs. avalanches in the area in the past ۴۸ hrs. thaw instability recent warming of the snow surface due to sun rain or warm air unstable snow collapsing cracking hollow snow or other clear evidence on instability. path easily identifiable. terrain traps gullies trees cliffs or other features. b m o c b m o c nature’s billboards evidence of past avalanches other avalanches fracture lines hollow sounds or whumping snow settling under feet recent wind loading b m o c b m o c assess this terrain and conditions photo by scott patterson b m o c b m o c ۸ people killed near here ۲ ۸ why b m o c b m o c grim statistics ۲۵ are killed by trauma during the avalanche. ۶۵ die of suffocation. most are buried ۲ ½ feet few survive. best survival if found within ۱۵ ۱۸ minutes of burial. the victim must do what he she can to be found. all should regularly practice rescue techniques. b m o c b m o c best chance of survival if found within ۱۵ – ۱۸ minutes b m o c b m o c personal group safety prepare for the worst research route equipment training. know the capabilities of your group practice search techniques each time before setting out. wear beacon at all times carry probe avalanche approved shovel. check beacon batteries before leaving regularly during trip. keep radios and other magnetic sources at least ۶ away from transceiver be prepared to turn around or to dig in. b m o c b m o c wearing a transceiver under outer layer of clothing but accessible. use and adjust harness to fit snugly. in the field wear at all times including while sleeping. set to transmit. rescuers reset to receive during search. b m o c b m o c route selection use r y g ۳ clues or other assessment tool. avoid midday and ۲۴ ۴۸ hrs after storm. seek routes that limit exposure. take advantage of ridges but avoid cornices. avoid gullies and …

کلمات کلیدی پرکاربرد در این اسلاید پاورپوینت: b, c, m, o, ., avalanche, snow, terrain, aspect, weather, –, compass,

این فایل پاورپوینت شامل 35 اسلاید و به زبان انگلیسی و حجم آن 4.76 مگا بایت است. نوع قالب فایل ppt بوده که با این لینک قابل دانلود است. این مطلب برگرفته از سایت زیر است و مسئولیت انتشار آن با منبع اصلی می باشد که در تاریخ 2019/05/17 12:09:33 استخراج شده است.

https://s3.wp.wsu.edu/uploads/sites/96/2014/07/AvalancheAwareness.ppt

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