17.4 Diversity can be understood in terms of niche relationships

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● Recap: Ecological Succession
● BIOL 4120: Principles of Ecology
Lecture 17: Biodiversity
● Outline (Chapter 20)
● 17.1 Variation in the relative abundance of species influences concepts of biodiversity
● Species diversity
● Simpson’s Species diversity
● Species diversity
● Recap:
Biodiversity
● Beta diversity
● 17.4 Diversity can be understood in terms of niche relationships
● Competition, diversity and niche
● Species diversity and niche diversity
● Recap
● 17.5 Equilibrium theories of diversity balance factors that add and remove species
● Steady-state (equilibrium) model
● 17.6 Explanations for high tree species richness in the tropics focus on forest dynamics
● 1. Environmental heterogeneity
● Environmental heterogeneity
● 2. Disturbance and gap dynamics
● 3. Herbivore and pathogen pressure
● Herbivore and pathogen pressure
● Response of Stipa neomexicana plants
● Competition release
● Commercial whaling in Antarctic Ocean
● Recap

نوع زبان: انگلیسی حجم: 11.24 مگا بایت
نوع فایل: اسلاید پاورپوینت تعداد اسلایدها: 73 صفحه
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گروه موضوعی: زمان استخراج مطلب: 2019/05/17 03:22:23

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., climax, species, community, succession, fire, change, damage, cyclic, condition, vegetation, year,

توجه: این مطلب در تاریخ 2019/05/17 03:22:23 به صورت خودکار از فضای وب آشکار توسط موتور جستجوی پاورپوینت جمع آوری شده است و در صورت اعلام عدم رضایت تهیه کننده ی آن، طبق قوانین سایت از روی وب گاه حذف خواهد شد. این مطلب از وب سایت زیر استخراج شده است و مسئولیت انتشار آن با منبع اصلی است.

http://www.tnstate.edu/faculty/dhui/biol4120/ppt/BIOL4120_Lect17.ppt

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عبارات پرتکرار و مهم در این اسلاید عبارتند از: ., climax, species, community, succession, fire, change, damage, cyclic, condition, vegetation, year,

مشاهده محتوای متنیِ این اسلاید ppt

مشاهده محتوای متنیِ این اسلاید ppt

recap ecological succession succession concepts type of succession mechanisms of succession climax community spatial distribution of species and factors influence community structure on the landscape. zonation changing of community structure across the landscape reflects the shifting distribution of populations in response to changing in environmental conditions as well as the interactions among species direct and indirect . next how community structure changes with time community dynamics ۱۶.۳ succession becomes self limiting as it approaches the climax succession continues until the addition of new species to the sere and the exclusion of established species no longer change the environment of the developing community. the progression from small to large growth form modifies the conditions of light temperature moisture and soil nutrients. conditions change slowly after the vegetations achieves the largest growth form that the environment can support. final dimensions of a climax community are limited by climate independently of events during succession. beech and maple seedlings can grow under their parent’s shading as no self inhibitation by soil pathogens or better tolerant to browsing by dense populations of deer. oak can’t have seedlings and will be replaced later. succession becomes self limiting as it approaches the climax time required for succession from a new or disturbed habitat to a climax community depends on nature of climax and initial quality of habitat mature oak hickory climax forest from old field in north carolina ۱۵ yrs climax stage of grasslands in western north america ۲ ۴ years humid tropics reach climax within ۱ years from clear cut but may take a few more centuries to achieves a fully mature structure and species composition. sand dune  beech maple climax up to ۱ years climax is an elusive concept communities also change in response to climate change hunting fire and logging disappearance of keystone consumers wolf passenger pigeon and trees chestnuts eastern hemlock climax communities under extreme environmental conditions fire is an important feature of many climax communities favoring fire resistant species and excluding species that would otherwise dominate. longleaf pine after a fire seedling may be badly burned but the growing shoot is protected by the long dense needles. many factors determining the composition of a climax community among them soil nutrients moisture slope and exposure. fire is an important features of many climax communities favoring fire resistant species and excluding other species that would dorminate. after a fire pine seedlings grow rapidly in the absence of coimpetition from other understory species. chaprral vegetation in seasonally dry california is a fire maintained climax that gives way to oak woodland in many areas when fire is prevented. climate climax and fire climax grazing pressure also modify a climax community grassland can be turned into shrubland by intense grazing herbivivores may kill or severely damage perennial grasses and allow shrubs and cacti that are unsuitable for forage to invade. selective grazing some species prefer to feed on areas previously grazed by others. both zebras and thompson’s gazelles feed on serengeti ecosystem of east africa but eating different plants. in north america cattle grazing may lead to invasion by alien cheatgrass which promote fire. transient and cyclic climaxes succession is a series of changes leading to a stable climax whose character is determined by local environment. once established a beech maple forest perpetuates itself and its general appearance changes little despite constant replacement of individuals within the community. transient climaxes such as communities in seasonal ponds – small bodies of water that either dry up in summer or freeze solid in winter. the extreme seasonal changes regularly destroy the communities that become established in the ponds each year. on african savannas carcasses of large mammals are devoured by a succession of vultures including large aggressive species  smaller species that glen smaller bits of meat from bone  species that cracks open bone to feed on marrow. not all climaxes are consistance. for example transient climaxes and cyclic climaxes. cyclic climax suppose for example species a can only germinate under species b b only under c and c only under a. the relationships create a regular cycle of species dominance in the order of a c b a c b a … in which the length of each stage is determined by the life span of the dominant species. cyclic succession is usually driven by stressful environmental conditions. when high winds damage heaths and other types of vegetation in northern scotland shredded foliage and broken twigs create openings for further damage and soon a wide swath is opened in the vegetation. regeneration occurs on the protected side of damaged area while wind damage further encroaches on exposed vegetation. temporal wind damage and regenerate cycling spatial mosaic patches climax community include cyclic patterns of change mosaic patterns of distribution and alternative stable states. climax is a dynamic state persistence is the key to climax biol ۴۱۲ principles of ecology lecture ۱۷ biodiversity dafeng hui office harned hall ۳۲ phone ۹۶۳ ۵۷۷۷ email dhui@tnstate.edu species richness varies over the surface of the earth why so may species in tropics and few toward the poles ۱ hectare of forest boreal ۵ temperate ۱ ۳ tropical ۱ ۳ two views ۱. diversity increases without limit over time. tropical forests are much older than temperate and polar environments have had time to accumulate more species. diversity is simply a matter of history. ۲. diversity reaches an equilibrium at which the appearance of new species balalces the loss of already existing species. in either case factors that add species would seemingly weigh more heavily in the balalce – or factors that remove species less heavily – closer to the tropic. now ecologists tend to accept that diversity might be regulated at a steady state similar as a population is balanced by the …

کلمات کلیدی پرکاربرد در این اسلاید پاورپوینت: ., climax, species, community, succession, fire, change, damage, cyclic, condition, vegetation, year,

این فایل پاورپوینت شامل 73 اسلاید و به زبان انگلیسی و حجم آن 11.24 مگا بایت است. نوع قالب فایل ppt بوده که با این لینک قابل دانلود است. این مطلب برگرفته از سایت زیر است و مسئولیت انتشار آن با منبع اصلی می باشد که در تاریخ 2019/05/17 03:22:23 استخراج شده است.

http://www.tnstate.edu/faculty/dhui/biol4120/ppt/BIOL4120_Lect17.ppt

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