6. Software Lifecycle Models

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● 6. Software Lifecycle Models
● 6.1. Planning with Models
● 6.2. Project Visibility
● 6.3. What is a Lifecycle Model?
● Advantages
● Disadvantages I
● Disadvantages II
● 6.5. Code-and-Fix
● Advantages
● Disadvantages
● 6.6. Spiral Model
● Advantages
● Disadvantages
● 6.7. Rapid Prototyping
● Advantages
● Disadvantages I
● Disadvantages II
● 6.8. Agile (XP) Manifesto
● 6.8.1. Agile Principles (Summary)
● 6.9. XP Practices (Summary)
● Advantages
● Disadvantages
● 6.10. Unified Process (UP)
● 6.11. COTS

نوع زبان: انگلیسی حجم: 0.11 مگا بایت
نوع فایل: اسلاید پاورپوینت تعداد اسلایدها: 47 صفحه
سطح مطلب: نامشخص پسوند فایل: ppt
گروه موضوعی: زمان استخراج مطلب: 2019/05/17 08:53:44

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., model, project, requirement, customer, lifecycle, risk, software, design, plan, product, code,

توجه: این مطلب در تاریخ 2019/05/17 08:53:44 به صورت خودکار از فضای وب آشکار توسط موتور جستجوی پاورپوینت جمع آوری شده است و در صورت اعلام عدم رضایت تهیه کننده ی آن، طبق قوانین سایت از روی وب گاه حذف خواهد شد. این مطلب از وب سایت زیر استخراج شده است و مسئولیت انتشار آن با منبع اصلی است.

https://www.nada.kth.se/~karlm/prutt05/lectures/prutt05_lec6.ppt

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عبارات پرتکرار و مهم در این اسلاید عبارتند از: ., model, project, requirement, customer, lifecycle, risk, software, design, plan, product, code,

مشاهده محتوای متنیِ این اسلاید ppt

مشاهده محتوای متنیِ این اسلاید ppt

۶. software lifecycle models a software lifecycle model is a standardised format for planning organising and running a new development project. hundreds of different kinds of models are known and used. many are minor variations on just a small number of basic models. in this section we survey the main types of model and consider how to choose between them. ۶.۱. planning with models se projects usually live with a fixed financial budget. an exception is maintainance additionally time to market places a strong time constraint. there will be other project constraints such as staff. project constraints money time computing resources staff programmers managers designers examples of project constraints project planning is the art of scheduling the necessary activities in time space and across staff in order to optimise project risk low see later profit high customer satisfaction high worker satisfaction high long term company goals questions ۱. what are these necessary activities besides programming ۲. are there good patterns of organisation that we could copy a project plan contains much information but must at least describe resources needed people money equipment etc dependency timing of work flow graph work packages rate of delivery reports code etc it is impossible to measure rate of progress except with reference to a plan. in addition to project members the following may need access to parts of the project plan management customers subcontractors suppliers investors banks ۶.۲. project visibility unlike other engineers e.g. civil electronic chemical … etc. software engineers do not produce anything physical. it is inherently difficult to monitor an se project due to lack of visibility. this means that se projects must produce additional deliverables artifacts which are visible such as design documents prototypes reports project status meetings client surveys e.g. satisfaction level ۶.۳. what is a lifecycle model definition. a software system lifecycle model is a description of the sequence of activities carried out in an se project and the relative order of these activities. it provides a fixed generic framework that can be tailored to a specific project. project specific parameters will include size person years budget duration. project plan lifecycle model project parameters there are hundreds of different lifecycle models to choose from e.g waterfall code and fix spiral rapid prototyping unified process up agile methods extreme programming xp cots … but many are minor variations on a smaller number of basic models. by changing the lifecycle model we can improve and or tradeoff development speed time to market product quality project visibility administrative overhead risk exposure customer relations etc etc. normally a lifecycle model covers the entire lifetime of a product. from birth of a commercial idea to final de installation of last release i.e. the three main phases design build maintain. note that we can sometimes combine lifecycle models e.g. waterfall inside evolutionary – onboard shuttle software we can also change lifecycle model between releases as a product matures e.g. rapid prototyping  waterfall ۶.۴. the waterfall model the waterfall model is the classic lifecycle model – it is widely known understood and commonly used. in some respect waterfall is the common sense approach. introduced by royce ۱۹۷ . user requirements software requirements architecture design detailed design coding testing delivery the waterfall lifecycle workflow time user requirements document software requirements document architectural design document detailed design code phase output swimming upstream advantages easy to understand and implement. widely used and known in theory reinforces good habits define before design design before code identifies deliverables and milestones document driven urd srd … etc. published documentation standards e.g. pss ۵. works well on mature products and weak teams. disadvantages i idealised doesn’t match reality well. doesn’t reflect iterative nature of exploratory development. unrealistic to expect accurate requirements so early in project software is delivered late in project delays discovery of serious errors. disadvantages ii ۵. difficult to integrate risk management difficult and expensive to make changes to documents swimming upstream . significant administrative overhead costly for small teams and projects. ۶.۵. code and fix this model starts with an informal general product idea and just develops code until a product is ready or money or time runs out . work is in random order. corresponds with no plan hacking advantages no administrative overhead signs of progress code early. low expertise anyone can use it useful for small proof of concept projects e.g. as part of risk reduction. disadvantages dangerous no visibility control no resource planning no deadlines mistakes hard to detect correct ۲. impossible for large projects communication breakdown chaos. ۶.۶. spiral model since end user requirements are hard to obtain define it is natural to develop software in an experimental way e.g. build some software see if it meets customer requirements if no goto ۱ else stop. this loop approach gives rise to structured iterative lifecycle models. in ۱۹۸۸ boehm developed the spiral model as an iterative model which includes risk analysis and risk management. key idea on each iteration identify and solve the sub problems with the highest risk. cumulative cost evaluate alternatives identify resolve risks develop verify next level product plan next phase determine objectives alternatives constraints review commitment prototypes p۱ p۲ p۳ operational prototype start end requirements plan development plan integration test plan requirements validation design validation verification detailed design coding unit integration testing acceptance testing concept of operation each cycle follows a waterfall model by determining objectives specifying constraints generating alternatives identifying risks resolving risks developing next level product planning next cycle advantages realism the model accurately reflects the iterative nature of software development on projects with unclear requirements flexible incoporates the advantages of the waterfal and rapid prototyping methods comprehensive model decreases risk good project visibility. disadvantages needs technical expertise in risk analysis to really work model is poorly understood by non technical management hence not so widely used complicated model needs competent professional management. high administrative overhead. ۶.۷. rapid prototyping key idea customers are non technical and usually don’t know what they want can have. rapid prototyping emphasises requirements analysis and validation also called customer oriented development evolutionary prototyping requirements capture quick design build prototype customer evaluation of prototype engineer final product the rapid prototype workflow iterate advantages reduces risk of incorrect user requirements good where requirements are changing uncommitted regular visible progress aids management supports early product marketing disadvantages i an unstable badly implemented prototype often becomes the final product. requires extensive customer collaboration costs customers money needs committed customers difficult to finish if customer withdraws may be too customer specific no broad market disadvantages ii ۳. difficult to know how long project will last ۴. easy to fall back into code and fix without proper requirements analysis design customer evaluation and feedback. ۶.۸. agile xp manifesto xp extreme programming emphasises individuals and interactions over processes and tools working software over documentation customer collaboration over contract negotiation responding to change over following a plan ۶.۸.۱. agile principles summary continuous delivery of software continuous collaboration with customer continuous update according to changes value participants and their interaction simplicity in code satisfy the spec ۶.۹. xp practices summary programming in …

کلمات کلیدی پرکاربرد در این اسلاید پاورپوینت: ., model, project, requirement, customer, lifecycle, risk, software, design, plan, product, code,

این فایل پاورپوینت شامل 47 اسلاید و به زبان انگلیسی و حجم آن 0.11 مگا بایت است. نوع قالب فایل ppt بوده که با این لینک قابل دانلود است. این مطلب برگرفته از سایت زیر است و مسئولیت انتشار آن با منبع اصلی می باشد که در تاریخ 2019/05/17 08:53:44 استخراج شده است.

https://www.nada.kth.se/~karlm/prutt05/lectures/prutt05_lec6.ppt

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