اسلاید پاورپوینت: برآمدگی (projection) ، نقشه (map) و وابسته به تروا (troy)…

 

عناوین اصلی استخراج شده از این فایل پاورپوینت

عناوین اصلی استخراج شده از این فایل پاورپوینت

● Map Projection
● Map Projection-distortion
● Area Distortion
● General Map Projection: Cylindrical
● Map Projection-distortion
● Shape distortion
● Some Examples of distortion
● Some examples of distortion
● Map Projection-Distortion
● Cylindrical Map Types
● Cylindrical map distortion
● Cylindrical Map Distortion
● Cylindrical map distortion
● General Projection Types: Conic
● Map Projection-General Types

نوع زبان : انگلیسی حجم : ۱٫۲۸ مگا بایت
نوع فایل : اسلاید پاورپوینت تعداد اسلایدها: ۳۱ صفحه
زمان استخراج مطلب : ۲۰۱۸/۱۱/۰۲ ۱۲:۰۰:۴۵ پسوند فایل : ppt

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این مطلب در تاریخ ۲۰۱۸/۱۱/۰۲ ۱۲:۰۰:۴۵ به صورت خودکار استخراج شده است. در صورت اعلام عدم رضایت تهیه کننده ی آن، طبق قوانین سایت از روی وب گاه حذف خواهد شد. همچنین این مطلب برگرفته از وب سایت زیر است و مسئولیت انتشار آن با منبع اصلی است.

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بخشی از محتوای متن استخراج شده از این فایل ppt

بخشی از محتوای متن استخراج شده از این فایل ppt

a critical distance is a threshold of distance beyond which the requisite travel costs or efforts are too great to make the journey viable or worthwhile for an individual or group map projection this is the method by which we transform the earth’s spheroid real world to a flat surface abstraction either on paper or digitally because we can’t take our globe everywhere with us remember most gis layers are ۲ d ۳d ۲d think about projecting a see through globe onto a wall source esri the cardinal points north east south and west correspond to absolute direction. their directions are absolute because they are based on physical astrological and geographical phenomena such as the movement of the sun and the stars which do not vary from place to place or culture to culture map projection distortion the problem with map projection is that it distorts one or several of these properties of a surface shape area distance direction some projections specialize in preserving one or several of these features but none preserve all cylindrical projections represent the globe as if it were enclosed within a cylinder much like the thought of placing a tennis ball inside an empty soup can then peeling off the soup can label to derive a two dimensional image of the globe inside. in this example the cylindrical surface is closest to the globe at its midregion the earth’s equator where the globe is the greatest in circumference. another way to state this relationship would be to say that the cylindrical projection is usually tangent to the earth’s equator. because cylindrical projections are typically tangent to the earth’s equator the middle latitudes are typically less distorted than the higher and lower latitudes in cylindrical projections area distortion ۸۲۷ square miles ۶.۸ million square miles mercator projection general map projection cylindrical created by wrapping a cylinder around a globe and in theory projecting light out of that globe the meridians in cylindrical projections are equally spaced while the spacing between parallel lines of latitude increases toward the poles meridians never converge so poles can’t be shown source esri map projection distortion distance projection can distort measures of true distance. accurate distance is maintained for only certain parallels or meridians unless the map is very localized. maps are said to be equidistant if distance from the map projection s center to all points is accurate. map projection distortion shape projection can distort the shape of a feature. conformal maps preserve the shape of smaller local geographic features while general shapes of larger features are distorted. that is they preserve local angles angle on map will be same as angle on globe. conformal maps also preserve constant scale locally map projections that preserve and accurately represent the shape of the geographical areas and features are said to be conformal map projection distortion area projection can distort the property of equal area or equivalent meaning that features have the correct area relative to one another. map projections that maintain this property are often called equal area map projections. for instance if s america is ۸x larger than greenland on the globe will be ۸x larger on map no map projection can have conformality and equal area sacrifice shape to preserve area and vice versa. map projection distortion ۲ ۵ austin troy direction projection can distort true directions angle or azimuth between locations azimuthal projections maintain true direction with respect to the center point. some azimuthal map projections maintain direction between any two points so that the angle of a line drawn between any two locations on the projection gives the correct direction with respect to true north. ۲ ۵ austin troy map projection distortion ۲ ۵ austin troy hence when choosing a projection one must take into account what it is that matters in your analysis and what properties you need to preserve conformal and equal area properties are mutually exclusive but some map projections can have more than one preserved property. for instance a map can be conformal and azimuthal conformal and equal area properties are global apply to whole map while equidistant and azimuthal properties are local and may be true only from or to the center of map ۲ ۵ austin troy ۲ ۵ austin troy ۴ ۳ km robinson ۵ ۴ km mercator ۲ ۵ austin troy shape distortion ۲ ۵ austin troy mercator left world cylindrical equal area above the distortion in shape above is necessary to get greenland to have the correct area the mercator map looks good but greenland is many times too big ۲ ۵ austin troy some examples of distortion ۲ ۵ austin troy mercator—goes on forever robinson sinusoidal ۲ ۵ austin troy some examples of distortion ۲ ۵ austin troy mercator maintains shape and direction but sacrifices area accuracy the sinusoidal and equal area cylindrical projections both maintain area but look quite different from each other. the latter distorts shape the robinson projection does not enforce any specific properties but is widely used because it makes the earth’s surface and its features look somewhat accurate ۲ ۵ austin troy map projection distortion ۲ ۵ austin troy tissot’s indicatrix made up of ellipses is a method for measuring distortion of a map ۲ ۵ austin troy map projection distortion ۲ ۵ austin troy tissot’s indicatrix here is the robinson projection map projection distortion ۲ ۵ austin troy here is sinusoidal area of these ellipses should be same as those at equator but shape is different ۲ ۵ austin troy cylindrical map types ۲ ۵ austin troy tangent to great circle in the simplest case the cylinder is north south so it is tangent touching at the equator this is called the standard parallel and represents where the projection is most accurate if the cylinder is smaller than the circumference of the earth then it intersects as a secant in two places source http nationalatlas.gov articles mapping a projections.html ۲ ۵ austin troy cylindrical map types secant projections are more …

کلمات کلیدی پرکاربرد در این اسلاید پاورپوینت: برآمدگی (projection), نقشه (map), وابسته به تروا (troy), سطح (area), تحریف (distortion), ریخت (shape), استوانهای (cylindrical), گرد کردن (globe), خاصیت (property), سو (direction),

این فایل پاورپوینت شامل ۳۱  اسلاید و به زبان انگلیسی و حجم آن ۱٫۲۸ مگا بایت است. نوع قالب فایل ppt بوده که با این لینک قابل دانلود است. این مطلب برگرفته از سایت زیر است و مسئولیت انتشار آن با منبع اصلی می باشد که در تاریخ ۲۰۱۸/۱۱/۰۲ ۱۲:۰۰:۴۵ استخراج شده است.

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