اسلاید پاورپوینت: تحقیق کردن (research) ، نحوه (method) و نزدیک آمدن (approach)…

 

عناوین اصلی استخراج شده از این فایل پاورپوینت

عناوین اصلی استخراج شده از این فایل پاورپوینت

● Research and research methods
● Basic principles of research design
● Four main schools of ontology
(how we construct reality)
● Epistemology
● Methodology
● A note about data
● Choosing your approach
● Quantitative approaches
● Quantitative data
● Black swans and falsifiability
● Type I and Type II errors
● Analysing quant data
● What are you looking for?
● Example correlations
● Interpreting test statistics
● Example of quant data/analysis*
● Interpreting test statistics
● What quant researchers worry about
● What’s wrong with quant research?
● Qualitative approaches
● Gathering qual data
● Sources of qual data
● Analysing qual data
● Example of qual data research*
● Data analysis and findings
● What qual researchers worry about
● What’s wrong with qual research?
● Other aspects of research design
● Summary
● Acknowledgments and further links

نوع زبان : انگلیسی حجم : ۲٫۹۵ مگا بایت
نوع فایل : اسلاید پاورپوینت تعداد اسلایدها: ۳۱ صفحه
زمان استخراج مطلب : ۲۰۱۸/۱۱/۰۲ ۰۴:۳۱:۳۴ پسوند فایل : pptx

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این مطلب در تاریخ ۲۰۱۸/۱۱/۰۲ ۰۴:۳۱:۳۴ به صورت خودکار استخراج شده است. در صورت اعلام عدم رضایت تهیه کننده ی آن، طبق قوانین سایت از روی وب گاه حذف خواهد شد. همچنین این مطلب برگرفته از وب سایت زیر است و مسئولیت انتشار آن با منبع اصلی است.

http://www.open.ac.uk/blogs/CALRG/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/intro-qual-quant.pptx

بخشی از محتوای متن استخراج شده از این فایل ppt

بخشی از محتوای متن استخراج شده از این فایل ppt

introduction to quantitative and qualitative research dr liz fitzgerald institute of educational technology research and research methods research methods are split broadly into quantitative and qualitative methods which you choose will depend on your research questions your underlying philosophy of research your preferences and skills basic principles of research design four main features of research design which are distinct but closely related ontology how you the researcher view the world and the assumptions that you make about the nature of the world and of reality epistemology the assumptions that you make about the best way of investigating the world and about reality methodology the way that you group together your research techniques to make a coherent picture methods and techniques what you actually do in order to collect your data and carry out your investigations these principles will inform which methods you choose you need to understand how they fit with your ‘bigger picture’ of the world and how you choose to investigate it to ensure that your work will be coherent and effective four main schools of ontology how we construct reality ontology realism internal realism relativism nominalism summary the world is ‘real’ and science proceeds by examining and observing it the world is real but it is almost impossible to examine it directly scientific laws are basically created by people to fit their view of reality reality is entirely created by people and there is no external ‘truth’ truth there is a single truth truth exists but is obscure there are many truths there is no truth facts facts exist and can be revealed through experiments facts are concrete but cannot always be revealed facts depend on the viewpoint of the observer facts are all human creations however none of these positions are absolutes. they are on a continuum with overlaps between them. ۴ epistemology i.e. the way in which you choose to investigate the world two main schools are positivism and social constructionism positivists believe that the best way to investigate the world is through objective methods such as observations. positivism fits within a realist ontology. social constructionists believe that reality does not exist by itself. instead it is constructed and given meaning by people. their focus is therefore on feelings beliefs and thoughts and how people communicate these. social constructionism fits better with a relativist ontology. methodology epistemology and ontology will have implications for your methodology realists tend to have positivist approach  tend to gather quantitative sources of data relativists tend to have a social constructionist approach  tend to gather qualitative sources of data remember these are not absolutes people tend to work on a continuum  role for mixed methods and approaches also consider the role of the researcher internal external involved or detached see also adams anne fitzgerald elizabeth and priestnall gary ۲ ۱۳ . of catwalk technologies and boundary creatures. acm transactions on computer human interaction tochi ۲ ۳ article no. ۱۵. http oro.open.ac.uk ۳۵۳۲۳ a note about data quantitative data is about quantities and therefore numbers qualitative data is about the nature of the thing investigated and tends to be words rather than numbers difference between primary and secondary data sources be aware of research data management practices and archives of data sets both in terms of downloading and uploading the role of the researcher the researcher can be either involved or external detached. these two positions again tend to link to the ontology and epistemology with the positivist approach leading to a detached view and the social constructionists tending towards the researcher being part of the world and therefore influencing and being influenced by events. choices and trade offs the choice of any particular research design from ontology through epistemology to methodology and then methods and techniques involves trade offs. all of the main research traditions have strengths and weaknesses. the most important aspect of designing your research is what you want to find out. whatever methods you use together with their underpinning philosophy must answer your chosen research questions. find more at http www.skillsyouneed.com learn research methods.html ixzz۴ krh۴t۸ ۷ choosing your approach your approach may be influenced by your colleagues’ views your organisation’s approach your supervisor’s beliefs and your own experience there is no right or wrong answer to choosing your research methods whatever approach you choose for your research you need to consider five questions what is the unit of analysis for example country company or individual. are you relying on universal theory or local knowledge i.e. will your results be generalisable and produce universally applicable results or are there local factors that will affect your results will theory or data come first should you read the literature first and then develop your theory or will you gather your data and develop your theory from that n.b. this will likely be an iterative process will your study be cross sectional or longitudinal are you looking at one point in time or changes over time will you verify or falsify a theory you cannot conclusively prove any theory the best that you can do is find nothing that disproves it. it is therefore easier to formulate a theory that you can try to disprove because you only need one ‘wrong’ answer to do so. quantitative approaches attempts to explain phenomena by collecting and analysing numerical data tells you if there is a difference but not necessarily why data collected are always numerical and analysed using statistical methods variables are controlled as much as possible rcd as the gold standard so we can eliminate interference and measure the effect of any change randomisation to reduce subjective bias if there are no numbers involved its not quantitative some types of research lend themselves better to quant approaches than others ۹ quantitative data data sources include surveys where there are a large number of respondents esp where you have used a likert scale observations counts of numbers and or coding data into numbers secondary data …

کلمات کلیدی پرکاربرد در این اسلاید پاورپوینت: تحقیق کردن (research), نحوه (method), نزدیک آمدن (approach), سرای (world), هستی شناسی (ontology), تئوری (theory), کمی (quantitative), اصالت وجود (reality), حقیقت (truth),

این فایل پاورپوینت شامل ۳۱  اسلاید و به زبان انگلیسی و حجم آن ۲٫۹۵ مگا بایت است. نوع قالب فایل pptx بوده که با این لینک قابل دانلود است. این مطلب برگرفته از سایت زیر است و مسئولیت انتشار آن با منبع اصلی می باشد که در تاریخ ۲۰۱۸/۱۱/۰۲ ۰۴:۳۱:۳۴ استخراج شده است.

http://www.open.ac.uk/blogs/CALRG/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/intro-qual-quant.pptx

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