اسلاید پاورپوینت: سرلوله (nozzle) ، جریان یافتن (flow) و فشار آوردن (pressure)…

 

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عناوین اصلی استخراج شده از این فایل پاورپوینت

● MAE 4262: ROCKETS AND MISSION ANALYSIS
● CONTENTS
● NOZZLE BASICS REVIEW
● OPERATION OF CONVERGING NOZZLES
● OPERATION OF CD NOZZLES
● EXAMPLE: SPACE SHUTTLE MAIN ENGINE, e ~ 77
● OVER-EXPANDED FLOW
● DETAILS: OVER-EXPANDED DESCRIPTION
● UNDER-EXPANDED FLOW
● SUMMARY
● EXAMPLE: ROCKET LAUNCH Ae/A*=20
● NOZZLE TYPES
● NOZZLE EXAMPLES
● ۱٫ CONICAL NOZZLES
● CONICAL NOZZLES: SOME DETAILS
● SIZING OF CONICAL NOZZLES
● ۲٫ BELL NOZZLES
● mROCKET PROJECT
● SIMPLIFIED NOZZLE DESIGN
● COOLING CHANNELS / HEAT EXCHANGER
● ۳٫ ANNULAR NOZZLES
● INTERESTING (?) NOTE
● MORE COMMENTS ON ANNULAR NOZZLES
● NOT SO NEW TECHNOLOGY: Messerschmitt Me 262
● RADIAL OUT-FLOW NOZZLES
● RADIAL OUT-FLOW NOZZLES: DETAILS
● RADIAL IN-FLOW NOZZLES
● SPIKE NOZZLES
● SPIKE NOZZLE PERFORMANCE
● SPIKE: EXTERNAL SUPERSONIC COMPRESSION
● AEROSPIKE NOZZLES
● TRUNCATED AEROSPIKE NOZZLES
● LINEAR AEROSPIKE NOZZLE
● X-33 LINEAR AEROSPIKE NOZZLE
● LINEAR AEROSPIKE NOZZLE
● ALTITUDE BEHAVIOR: BELL
● ALTITUDE COMPENSATION: BELL
● ALTITUDE COMPENSATION: ANNULAR
● SUMMARY: SHAPED (BELL) NOZZLES
● ANNULAR: ADVANTAGES
● ANNULAR: DISADVANTAGES
● HOW DO WE DESIGN NOZZLES?
● METHOD OF CHARACTERISTICS EXAMPLE
● CFD EXAMPLE
● SUMMARY OF KEY POINTS
● METHOD OF CHARACTERISTICS
● ABREVIATED DERIVATION
● NOMENCLATURE
● REFERENCES

نوع زبان : انگلیسی حجم : ۴٫۴۵ مگا بایت
نوع فایل : اسلاید پاورپوینت تعداد اسلایدها: ۵۷ صفحه
زمان استخراج مطلب : ۲۰۱۸/۱۱/۰۲ ۰۳:۳۱:۲۲ پسوند فایل : ppt

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این مطلب در تاریخ ۲۰۱۸/۱۱/۰۲ ۰۳:۳۱:۲۲ به صورت خودکار استخراج شده است. در صورت اعلام عدم رضایت تهیه کننده ی آن، طبق قوانین سایت از روی وب گاه حذف خواهد شد. همچنین این مطلب برگرفته از وب سایت زیر است و مسئولیت انتشار آن با منبع اصلی است.

http://my.fit.edu/~dkirk/4262/Lectures/Nozzles.ppt

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بخشی از محتوای متن استخراج شده از این فایل ppt

mae ۴۲۶۲ rockets and mission analysis rocket nozzles mechanical and aerospace engineering department florida institute of technology d. r. kirk contents review of nozzle performance review of converging nozzle operation review of converging diverging nozzle operation ۳ primary types of nozzles cone bell annular aerospike nozzle details altitude compensation and off design operation how are nozzles designed nozzle basics review nozzle produces thrust convert thermal energy of hot chamber gases into kinetic energy and direct that energy along nozzle axis exhaust gases from combustion are pushed into throat region of nozzle throat is smaller cross sectional area than rest of engine → gases are compressed to high pressure nozzle gradually increases in cross sectional area allowing gases to expand and push against walls creating thrust mathematically ultimate purpose of nozzle is to expand gases as efficiently as possible so as to maximize exit velocity nozzle basics review expansion area ratio most important parameter in nozzle design is expansion area ratio e fixing other variables primarily chamber pressure → only one ratio that optimizes performance for a given altitude or ambient pressure however rocket does not travel at only one altitude should know trajectory to select expansion ratio that maximizes performance over a range of ambient pressures see lecture notes on isentropic nozzle calculations for more details other factors must also be considered nozzle weight length manufacturability cooling heat transfer and aerodynamic characteristics. operation of converging nozzles a converging nozzle will choke when pb is reduced to a critical value p found from isentropic relations pe p is called design pressure ratio for pb p flow will be subsonic pe pb for any pb p flow will be sonic at nozzle exit pe pb flow is choked and pe p questions can this nozzle ever produce a supersonic flow in the converging portion can this nozzle ever produce a supersonic region in the exhaust is this region expanding or being compressed can this nozzle ever be over expanded such that pe pb pe pb operation of cd nozzles configuration for converging diverging cd nozzle is shown below gas flows through nozzle from region of high pressure chamber to low pressure ambient the chamber is taken as big enough so that any flow velocities are negligible gas flows from chamber into converging portion of nozzle past the throat through the diverging portion and then exhausts into the ambient as a jet pressure of ambient is referred to as back pressure operation of cd nozzles operation of cd nozzles all practical rockets operate in regimes e g operation of cd nozzles figure a shows the flow through the nozzle when it is completely subsonic i.e. nozzle isn t choked . the flow accelerates out of the chamber through the converging section reaching its maximum subsonic speed at the throat. the flow then decelerates through the diverging section and exhausts into the ambient as a subsonic jet. lowering the back pressure in this state increases the flow speed everywhere in the nozzle. further lowering pb results in figure b . the flow pattern is exactly the same as in subsonic flow except that the flow speed at the throat has just reached mach ۱. flow through the nozzle is now choked since further reductions in the back pressure can t move the point of m ۱ away from the throat. however the flow pattern in the diverging section does change as the back pressure is lowered further. as pb is lowered below that needed to just choke the flow a region of supersonic flow forms just downstream of the throat. unlike a subsonic flow the supersonic flow accelerates as the area gets bigger. this region of supersonic acceleration is terminated by a normal shock wave. the shock wave produces a near instantaneous deceleration of the flow to subsonic speed. this subsonic flow then decelerates through the remainder of the diverging section and exhausts as a subsonic jet. in this regime if the back pressure is lowered or raised the length of supersonic flow in the diverging section before the shock wave increases or decreases respectively. operation of cd nozzles if pb is lowered enough the supersonic region may be extended all the way down the nozzle until the shock is sitting at the nozzle exit figure d . because of the very long region of acceleration the entire nozzle length the flow speed just before the shock will be very large. however after the shock the flow in the jet will still be subsonic. lowering the back pressure further causes the shock to bend out into the jet figure e and a complex pattern of shocks and reflections is set up in the jet which will now involve a mixture of subsonic and supersonic flow or if the back pressure is low enough just supersonic flow. because the shock is no longer perpendicular to the flow near the nozzle walls it deflects it inward as it leaves the exit producing an initially contracting jet. we refer to this as over expanded flow because in this case the pressure at the nozzle exit is lower than that in the ambient the back pressure i.e. the flow has been expanded by the nozzle too much. a further lowering of the back pressure changes and weakens the wave pattern in the jet. eventually the back pressure will be lowered enough so that it is now equal to the pressure at the nozzle exit. in this case the waves in the jet disappear altogether figure f and the jet will be uniformly supersonic. this situation since it is often desirable is referred to as the design condition‘ pe pa. operation of cd nozzles finally if the back pressure is lowered even further we will create a new imbalance between the exit and back …

کلمات کلیدی پرکاربرد در این اسلاید پاورپوینت: سرلوله (nozzle), جریان یافتن (flow), فشار آوردن (pressure), عقب (back), سافل (lower), عملکرد (operation), جت (jet), فراصوت شناسی (supersonic), ضغطه (shock),

این فایل پاورپوینت شامل ۵۷  اسلاید و به زبان انگلیسی و حجم آن ۴٫۴۵ مگا بایت است. نوع قالب فایل ppt بوده که با این لینک قابل دانلود است. این مطلب برگرفته از سایت زیر است و مسئولیت انتشار آن با منبع اصلی می باشد که در تاریخ ۲۰۱۸/۱۱/۰۲ ۰۳:۳۱:۲۲ استخراج شده است.

http://my.fit.edu/~dkirk/4262/Lectures/Nozzles.ppt

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